Rapid histological assessment of large areas of prostate tissue is required for many intraoperative consultation scenarios such as margin evaluation. Nonlinear microscopy (NLM) enables imaging of large (whole mount) specimens without freezing or cryotoming. This study demonstrates rapid histological imaging of unsectioned prostate cancer surgical specimens using nonlinear microscopy and compares features of prostate pathology to standard paraffin embedded H&E histology. Fresh or formalin fixed specimens were stained in 2.5 min with fluorescent nuclear and stromal dyes. Nonlinear microscopy images of unsectioned tissues were generated by nonlinear (two-photon) excitation of the fluorophores, where fluorescence is only emitted from tissue at the microscope focus, avoiding the need for physical sectioning. The images were displayed in real time using a color scale similar to H&E, then tissues were processed for standard paraffin embedded H&E histology. Seventy nonlinear microscopy and corresponding paraffin H&E images of fresh and fixed prostate specimens (15 cancer, 55 benign) from 24 patients were read by genitourinary pathologists to assess if nonlinear microscopy could achieve an equivalent evaluation to paraffin embedded H&E histology. Differences between nonlinear microscopy images and paraffin H&E slides, including cytoplasmic color and stromal density, were observed, however nonlinear microscopy images could be interpreted with minimal training. Nonlinear microscopy enabled visualization of benign, atrophic and hyperplastic glands and stroma, ejaculatory ducts, vasculature and inflammatory changes. Nonlinear microscopy enabled identification of typical and variants of adenocarcinoma, as well as Gleason patterns. Perineural invasion and extraprostatic extension could also be assessed. Nonlinear microscopy images closely resemble paraffin H&E slides and enable rapid assessment of normal prostate architecture, benign conditions, and carcinoma in freshly excised and fixed specimens. Nonlinear microscopy can image large regions of tissue, equivalent to multiple frozen section tissue blocks, within minutes because cryotoming/microtoming are not required, making it a promising technique for intraoperative consultation.
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This study was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health R01-CA178636–05, R01-CA075289–20, F32-CA183400–02 and Air Force Office of Scientific Research AFOSR contracts FA9550–12–1–0551 and FA9550–15–1–0473.