The breast stromal microenvironment is a pivotal factor in breast cancer development, growth and metastases. Although pathologists often detect morphologic changes in stroma by light microscopy, visual classification of such changes is subjective and non-quantitative, limiting its diagnostic utility. To gain insights into stromal changes associated with breast cancer, we applied automated machine learning techniques to digital images of 2387 hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections of benign and malignant image-guided breast biopsies performed to investigate mammographic abnormalities among 882 patients, ages 40–65 years, that were enrolled in the Breast Radiology Evaluation and Study of Tissues (BREAST) Stamp Project. Using deep convolutional neural networks, we trained an algorithm to discriminate between stroma surrounding invasive cancer and stroma from benign biopsies. In test sets (928 whole-slide images from 330 patients), this algorithm could distinguish biopsies diagnosed as invasive cancer from benign biopsies solely based on the stromal characteristics (area under the receiver operator characteristics curve = 0.962). Furthermore, without being trained specifically using ductal carcinoma in situ as an outcome, the algorithm detected tumor-associated stroma in greater amounts and at larger distances from grade 3 versus grade 1 ductal carcinoma in situ. Collectively, these results suggest that algorithms based on deep convolutional neural networks that evaluate only stroma may prove useful to classify breast biopsies and aid in understanding and evaluating the biology of breast lesions.
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This project was funded in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland and a competitive award to MES and LAB funded through the sale of breast cancer awareness postage stamps. The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support by the European Union FP7 funded VPHPRISM project under the grant agreement n601040. Pamela Vacek and Donald Weaver are currently funded under a U01 exploring stromal contributions to tumor progression (U01 CA196383).