a A pneumatic impactor induced TBI in a murine model; the location of impact was at bregma, covered by a metal disk. b Mouse plasma samples were processed through an acoustofluidic chip with two separation modules. Cells and platelets were removed by the first separation module, while large vesicles, including microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, were removed by the second separation module. Exosomes remained in the collected samples. c Isolated samples were stained with fluorescence-tagged anti-CD63 and anti-GFAP antibodies and analyzed with a flow cytometer to detect CD63+/GFAP+ events.