a Frequency response of water droplets with different volumes on Cytop surfaces under the same vibration acceleration amplitude of 1 g. The initial droplet width w0 on the Cytop surface was measured as 2.24, 2.87, and 3.39 mm separately by image processing. b Water droplet (7 µL) transport modes under different frequencies. The ARC track requires vibration input with higher accelerations to drive the water droplet forward as the frequency increases. c Minimum vibration acceleration map required to transport the droplet. Three droplets were measured at each frequency point. Data are shown ±one standard deviation for n = 3. d Estimated power consumption of the electromagnetic shaker. The overall load weight was measured at 200 g. The spring constant of the system is 12 N/mm according to the instrument datasheet.