a Self-cleaning surface system design. b Top view of the ARC design. The parameters include the rung radius of curvature (R), ARC rung center-to-center period distance (P), hydrophilic region width (w), and the total ARC track width (W). c Optical transmittance measurement results with a wavelength range of 350~800 nm. Ten-centimeter soda-lime glass wafers were used as the substrate baseline. d I-V output of solar module assembly with a coated cover glass.