Fig. 1: Overview of thermal spacer design. | Microsystems & Nanoengineering

Fig. 1: Overview of thermal spacer design.

From: Micron-gap spacers with ultrahigh thermal resistance and mechanical robustness for direct energy conversion

Fig. 1

a Diagram of two hot electrodes in a thermionic or thermophotovoltaic converter separated by the spacer (not to scale). b Scanning-electron micrograph (SEM) showing how the spacers maintain a gap between planar substrates at a distance defined by the spacer height. c The released spacer samples are modular and can be placed on any chosen substrate, such as a polished molybdenum electrode. d SEM of the U-beam ribs and hexagonal honeycomb pattern (in this case, the wavy design with low curvature) of the spacer. e Zoomed-in SEM showing the cross section of a spacer rib. The film thickness is about 400 nm and spacer height about 6 μm. The spacers in the SEMs are false-colored (blue) to enhance contrast

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