Fig. 1: Strategies for metasurface design. | Light: Science & Applications

Fig. 1: Strategies for metasurface design.

From: High-efficiency, large-area, topology-optimized metasurfaces

Fig. 1

a Conventional approaches sample the desired phase profile at discrete points and specify phase shifting elements to form a nanoscale phased array. b Our approach is to divide the desired phase profile into wavelength-scale, linear sections and use topology optimization to design each section individually. c Computation time versus device size for topology-optimized metasurfaces that are designed using two approaches: direct optimization of the entire metasurface (orange) and optimization of the metasurface after division into 3λ-wide sections (green)

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