Data on the efficacy and safety of interferon (IFN)-α for the treatment of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV) are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis and searched MEDLINE and EMBASE via Ovid, Scopus, COCHRANE registry of clinical trials, and Web of Science from inception through 03/2019 for studies of pegylated IFN (peg-IFN) and non-pegylated IFN (non-peg-IFN) in PV and ET patients. Random-effects models were used to pool response rates for the primary outcome of overall response rate (ORR) defined as a composite of complete response, partial response, complete hematologic response (CHR) and partial hematologic response. Peg-IFN and non-peg-IFN were compared by meta-regression analyses. In total, 44 studies with 1359 patients (730 ET, 629 PV) were included. ORR were 80.6% (95% confidence interval: 76.6–84.1%, CHR: 59.0% [51.5%–66.1%]) and 76.7% (67.4–84.0%; CHR: 48.5% [37.8–59.4%]) for ET and PV patients, respectively. In meta-regression analyses results did not differ significantly for non-peg-IFN vs. peg-IFN. Annualized rates of thromboembolic complications and treatment discontinuation due to adverse events were low at 1.2% and 8.8% for ET and 0.5% and 6.5% for PV patients, respectively. Both peg-IFN and non-peg-IFN can be effective and safe long-term treatments for ET and PV.
This is a preview of subscription content
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Network NCC. NCCN Guidelines Version 3.2019: Myeloproliferative neoplasms. 2019 [cited 2019 10/11/2019]; https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/mpn.pdf.
Nangalia J, Green AR. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: from origins to outcomes. Blood. 2017;130:2475–83.
Szuber N, Mudireddy M, Nicolosi M, Penna D, Vallapureddy RR, Lasho TL, et al. 3023 mayo clinic patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: risk-stratified comparison of survival and outcomes data among disease subgroups. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94:599–610.
Marchioli R, Finazzi G, Specchia G, Cacciola R, Cavazzina R, Cilloni D, et al. Cardiovascular events and intensity of treatment in polycythemia vera. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:22–33.
Harrison CN, Campbell PJ, Buck G, Wheatley K, East CL, Bareford D, et al. Hydroxyurea compared with anagrelide in high-risk essential thrombocythemia. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:33–45.
Sterkers Y, Preudhomme C, Lai JL, Demory JL, Caulier MT, Wattel E, et al. Acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes following essential thrombocythemia treated with hydroxyurea: high proportion of cases with 17p deletion. Blood. 1998;91:616–22.
Nand S, Stock W, Godwin J, Fisher SG. Leukemogenic risk of hydroxyurea therapy in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis. Am J Hematol. 1996;52:42–46.
Kiladjian JJ, Rain JD, Bernard JF, Briere J, Chomienne C, Fenaux P. Long-term incidence of hematological evolution in three French prospective studies of hydroxyurea and pipobroman in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2006;32:417–21.
Kiladjian JJ, Cassinat B, Chevret S, Turlure P, Cambier N, Roussel M, et al. Pegylated interferon-alfa-2a induces complete hematologic and molecular responses with low toxicity in polycythemia vera. Blood. 2008;112:3065–72.
Quintas-Cardama A, Abdel-Wahab O, Manshouri T, Kilpivaara O, Cortes J, Roupie AL, et al. Molecular analysis of patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia receiving pegylated interferon alpha-2a. Blood. 2013;122:893–901.
Stauffer Larsen T, Iversen KF, Hansen E, Mathiasen AB, Marcher C, Frederiksen M, et al. Long term molecular responses in a cohort of Danish patients with essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis treated with recombinant interferon alpha. Leuk Res. 2013;37:1041–5.
Kiladjian J-J, Mesa RA, Hoffman R. The renaissance of interferon therapy for the treatment of myeloid malignancies. Blood. 2011;117:4706–15.
Masarova L, Bose P, Verstovsek S. The rationale for immunotherapy in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2019;14:310–27. 2019/08/01
Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA. 2000;283:2008–12.
Bewersdorf JP, Giri S, Wang R, Podoltsev N, Williams RT, Rampal RK, et al. Interferon therapy in myelofibrosis–a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2020;S2152-2650(20)30264-0.
Downs SH, Black N. The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52:377–84.
Stahl M, Bewersdorf JP, Giri S, Wang R, Zeidan AM. Use of Immunosuppressive therapy for management of myelodysplastic syndromes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Haematologica 2020;105:102–11.
Collaboration TC The Cochrane Collaboration. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.02011. 2011.
Abegg-Werter MJBP, Raemaekers JMM, De Pauw BE, Haanen C. Recombinant interferon-alpha, but not interferon-gamma is effective therapie for essential thrombocythemia. Blut. 1990;60:37–40.
Alvarado Y, Cortes J, Verstovsek S, Thomas D, Faderl S, Estrov Z, et al. Pilot study of pegylated interferon-alpha 2b in patients with essential thrombocythemia. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2003;51:81–86.
Bentley M, Taylor K, Grigg A, Kronenberg H, Gibson J, Bunce I, et al. Long-term interferon-alpha 2A does not induce sustained hematologic remission in younger patients with essential thrombocythemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 1999;36:123–8.
Cervantes F, Salgado C, Feliu E, Montserrat E, Rozman C. Interferon alpha-2b for essential thrombocythaemia: Results in 13 previously untreated patients. Leuk Lymphoma. 1991;4:351–4.
Giles FJ, Anderson CC, Grant IR, Hoffbrand AV, Mehta AB, Machin SJ, et al. Recombinant alpha 2a interferon–An effective maintenance agent in essential thrombocythaemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 1990;3:103–7.
Giralt M, Rubio D, Cortes MT, Miguel JS, Steegmann JL, Serena J, et al. Alpha interferon in the management of essential thrombocythaemia. Eur J Cancer. 1991;27 Suppl 4:S72–S74.
Kasparu H, Bernhart M, Krieger O, Lutz D. Remission may continue after termination of rIFNalpha-2b treatment for essential thrombocythemia. Eur J Haematol. 1992;48:33–36.
Gowin K, Thapaliy P, Samuelson J, Harrison C, Radia D, Andreasson B, et al. Experience with pegylated interferon alpha -2a in advanced myeloproliferative neoplasms in an international cohort of 118 patients. Haematologica. 2012;97:1570–3.
Gowin K, Jain T, Kosiorek H, Tibes R, Camoriano J, Palmer J, et al. Pegylated interferon alpha - 2a is clinically effective and tolerable in myeloproliferative neoplasm patients treated off clinical trial. Leuk Res. 2017;54:73–77.
Huang BT, Zeng QC, Zhao WH, Li BS, Chen RL. Interferon alpha-2b gains high sustained response therapy for advanced essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera with JAK2V617F positive mutation. Leuk. Res. 2014;38:1177–83.
Jabbour E, Kantarjian H, Cortes J, Thomas D, Garcia-Manero G, Ferrajoli A, et al. PEG-IFN-alpha-2b therapy in BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative disorders: final result of a phase 2 study. Cancer. 2007;110:2012–8.
Langer C, Lengfelder E, Thiele J, Kvasnicka HM, Pahl HL, Beneke H, et al. Pegylated interferon for the treatment of high risk essential thrombocythemia: results of a phase II study. Haematologica. 2005;90:1333–8.
Lopes E, Ribeiro MM, Silva MJ, Gandra M, Principe F, Granato C. Essential thrombocythemia - clinical features, therapy and follow-up of 12 cases. Leukemia. 1992;6 Suppl 3:138S–140S.
Lazzarino M, Vitale A, Morra E, Gagliardi A, Bernasconi P, Torromeo C, et al. Interferon alpha-2b as treatment for Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders with excessive thrombocytosis. Br J Haematol. 1989;72:173–7.
Lindgren M, Samuelsson J, Nilsson L, Knutsen H, Ghanima W, Westin J, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B (IFNL3) and response to interferon-alpha treatment in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Eur J Haematol. 2018;100:419–25.
Masarova L, Patel KP, Newberry KJ, Cortes J, Borthakur G, Konopleva M, et al. Pegylated interferon alfa-2a in patients with essential thrombocythaemia or polycythaemia vera: a post-hoc, median 83 month follow-up of an open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Haematol. 2017;4:e165–e175.
Middelhoff G, Boll I. A long-term clinical trial of interferon alpha-therapy in essential thrombocythemia. Ann Hematol. 1992;64:207–9.
Pogliani EM, Rossini F, Miccolis I, Ferrario A, Perego D, Casaroli I, et al. Alpha interferon as initial treatment of essential thrombocythemia. Analysis after two years of follow-up. Tumori. 1995;81:245–8.
Radin AI, Kim HT, Grant BW, Bennett JM, Kirkwood JM, Stewart JA, et al. Phase II study of alpha2 interferon in the treatment of the chronic myeloproliferative disorders (E5487): a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Cancer. 2003;98:100–9.
Rametta V, Ferrara F, Marottoli V, Matera C, Mettivier V, Cimino R. Recombinant interferon alpha-2b as treatment of essential thrombocythaemia. Acta Haematol. 1994;91:126–9.
Saba R, Jabbour E, Giles F, Cortes J, Talpaz M, O’Brien S, et al. Interferon alpha therapy for patients with essential thrombocythemia: final results of a phase II study initiated in 1986. Cancer. 2005;103:2551–7.
Sacchi S, Tabilio A, Leoni P, Riccardi A, Vecchi A, Messora C, et al. Interferon alpha-2b in the long-term treatment of essential thrombocythemia. Ann Hematol. 1991;63:206–9.
Sacchi S, Gugliotta L, Papineschi F, Liberati AM, Rupoli S, Delfini C, et al. Alfa-interferon in the treatment of essential thrombocythemia: clinical results and evaluation of its biological effects on the hematopoietic neoplastic clone. Leukemia. 1998;12:289–94.
Seewann HL, Zikulnig R, Gallhofer G, Schmid C. Treatment of thrombocytosis in chronic myeloproliferative disorders with interferon alfa-2b. Eur J Cancer. 1991;27 Suppl 4:S58–S63.
Turri D, Mitra ME, Di Trapani R, Lipari MG, Perricone R, Cajozzo A. Alpha-interferon in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia. Haematologica. 1991;76:75–77.
Verger E, Cassinat B, Chauveau A, Dosquet C, Giraudier S, Schlageter M-H, et al. Clinical and molecular response to interferon-alpha therapy in essential thrombocythemia patients with CALR mutations. Blood. 2015;126:2585–91.
Yataganas X, Meletis J, Plata E, Viniou N, Deligiannis F, Tsekoura C, et al. Alpha interferon treatment of essential thrombocythaemia and other myeloproliferative disorders with excessive thrombocytosis. Eur J Cancer. 1991;27 Suppl 4:S69–S71.
Zhang ZR, Duan YC. Interferon apha 2b for treating patients with JAK2V617F positive polycythemia vera and essential thrombocytosis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15:1681–4.
Berte R, Vallisa D, Ferrari B, Civardi G, Sbolli G, Cavanna L. Low-dose interferon alpha treatment in essential thrombocythemia. Eur J Haematol. 1996;56:104–5.
Gisslinger H, Chott A, Scheithauer W, Gilly B, Linkesch W, Ludwig H. Interferon in essential thrombocythaemia. Br. J. Haematol. 1991;79 Suppl 1:42–47.
Crisa E, Cerrano M, Beggiato E, Benevolo G, Lanzarone G, Manzini PM, et al. Can pegylated interferon improve the outcome of polycythemia vera patients? J. Hematol Oncol. 2017;10:15.
Foa P, Massaro P, Caldiera S, LaTargia ML, Iurlo A, Clerici C, et al. Long-term therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of recombinant interferon- alpha 2a in polycythaemia vera. Eur J Haematol. 1998;60:273–7.
Gisslinger H, Zagrijtschuk O, Buxhofer-Ausch V, Thaler J, Schloegl E, Gastl GA, et al. Ropeginterferon alfa-2b, a novel IFNalpha-2b, induces high response rates with low toxicity in patients with polycythemia vera. Blood. 2015;126:1762–9.
Heis N, Rintelen C, Gisslinger B, Knobl P, Lechner K, Gisslinger H. The effect of interferon alpha on myeloproliferation and vascular complications in polycythemia vera. Eur J Haematol. 1999;62:27–31.
Jones AV, Silver RT, Waghorn K, Curtis C, Kreil S, Zoi K, et al. Minimal molecular response in polycythemia vera patients treated with imatinib or interferon alpha. Blood. 2006;107:3339–41.
Kiladjian JJ, Guglielmelli P, Griesshammer M, Saydam G, Masszi T, Durrant S, et al. Efficacy and safety of ruxolitinib after and versus interferon use in the RESPONSE studies. Ann Hematol. 2018;97:617–27.
Öztürk A, Günay A, Üskent N. Therapeutic efficacy of recombinant interferon-alpha in polycythaemia vera. Acta Haematologica. 1998;99:89–91.
Utke Rank C, Weis Bjerrum O, Larsen TS, Kjaer L, De Stricker K, Riley CH, et al. Minimal residual disease after long-term interferon-alpha2 treatment: a report on hematological, molecular and histomorphological response patterns in 10 patients with essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera. Leuk Lymphoma. 2016;57:348–54.
Stasi R, Venditti A, Del Poeta G, Conforti M, Brunetti M, Bussa S, et al. Role of human leukocyte interferon-alpha in the treatment of patients with polycythemia vera. Am J Med Sci. 1998;315:237–41.
Larsen TS, Moller MB, de Stricker K, Norgaard P, Samuelsson J, Marcher C, et al. Minimal residual disease and normalization of the bone marrow after long-term treatment with alpha-interferon2b in polycythemia vera. A report on molecular response patterns in seven patients in sustained complete hematological remission. Hematology. 2009;14:331–4.
Taylor PC, Dolan G, Ng JP, Paul B, Collin R, Reilly JT. Efficacy of recombinant interferon-alpha (rIFN-alpha) in polycythaemia vera: a study of 17 patients and an analysis of published data. Br J Haematol. 1996;92:55–59.
Kuriakose E, Vandris K, Wang YL, Chow W, Jones AV, Christos P, et al. Decrease in JAK2 V617F allele burden is not a prerequisite to clinical response in patients with polycythemia vera. Haematologica. 2012;97:538–42.
Barbui T, Finazzi G, Carobbio A, Thiele J, Passamonti F, Rumi E, et al. Development and validation of an International Prognostic Score of thrombosis in World Health Organization–essential thrombocythemia (IPSET-thrombosis). Blood. 2012;120:5128–33.
Gisslinger H, Klade C, Georgiev P, Krochmalczyk D, Gercheva-Kyuchukova L, Egyed M, et al. Ropeginterferon alfa-2b versus standard therapy for polycythaemia vera (PROUD-PV and CONTINUATION-PV): a randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial and its extension study. Lancet Haematol. 2020;7:e196–e208.
Barbui T, Tefferi A, Vannucchi AM, Passamonti F, Silver RT, Hoffman R, et al. Philadelphia chromosome-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms: revised management recommendations from European LeukemiaNet. Leukemia. 2018;32:1057–69.
Marchioli R, Finazzi G, Landolfi R, Kutti J, Gisslinger H, Patrono C, et al. Vascular and neoplastic risk in a large cohort of patients with polycythemia vera. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:2224–32.
Cortelazzo S, Viero P, Finazzi G, D’Emilio A, Rodeghiero F, Barbui T. Incidence and risk factors for thrombotic complications in a historical cohort of 100 patients with essential thrombocythemia. J Clin Oncol. 1990;8:556–62.
Mascarenhas J, Kosiorek H, Prchal J, Yacoub A, Berenzon D, Baer MR, et al. A prospective evaluation of pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy in patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia with a prior splanchnic vein thrombosis. Leukemia. 2019;33:2974–8.
Ito T, Hashimoto Y, Tanaka Y, Nakaya A, Fujita S, Satake A, et al. Efficacy and safety of anagrelide as a first-line drug in cytoreductive treatment-naïve essential thrombocythemia patients in a real-world setting. Eur J Haematol. 2019;103:116–23.
Gisslinger H, Gotic M, Holowiecki J, Penka M, Thiele J, Kvasnicka HM, et al. Anagrelide compared with hydroxyurea in WHO-classified essential thrombocythemia: the ANAHYDRET Study, a randomized controlled trial. Blood. 2013;121:1720–8.
Spivak JL. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:2168–81.
Ferrari A, Carobbio A, Masciulli A, Ghirardi A, Finazzi G, De Stefano V, et al. Clinical outcomes under hydroxyurea treatment in polycythemia vera: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Haematologica. 2019;104:2391–9.
Mascarenhas J, Kosiorek HE, Prchal JT, Rambaldi A, Berenzon D, Yacoub A, et al. Results of the myeloproliferative neoplasms–research consortium (MPN-RC) 112 randomized trial of pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG) versus hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for the treatment of high risk polycythemia vera (PV) and high risk essential thrombocythemia (ET). Blood. 2018;132 Suppl 1:577–577.
Mesa RA, Kosiorek HE, Mascarenhas J, Prchal JT, Rambaldi A, Berenzon D, et al. Impact on MPN symptoms and quality of life of front line pegylated interferon alpha-2a vs. hydroxyurea in high risk polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: results of myeloproliferative disorders research consortium (MPD-RC) 112 Global Phase III Trial. Blood. 2018;132 Suppl 1:3032–3032.
Hatalova A, Schwarz J, Gotic M, Penka M, Hrubisko M, Kusec R, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with polycythaemia vera. Eur J Haematol. 2018;101:654–64.
Beauverd Y, Radia D, Cargo C, Knapper S, Drummond M, Pillai A, et al. Pegylated interferon alpha-2a for essential thrombocythemia during pregnancy: outcome and safety. A case series. Haematologica. 2016;101:e182–e184.
Antonioli E, Carobbio A, Pieri L, Pancrazzi A, Guglielmelli P, Delaini F, et al. Hydroxyurea does not appreciably reduce JAK2 V617F allele burden in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia. Haematologica. 2010;95:1435–8.
Them NC, Bagienski K, Berg T, Gisslinger B, Schalling M, Chen D, et al. Molecular responses and chromosomal aberrations in patients with polycythemia vera treated with peg-proline-interferon alpha-2b. Am J Hematol. 2015;90:288–94.
Barosi G, Mesa R, Finazzi G, Harrison C, Kiladjian J-J, Lengfelder E, et al. Revised response criteria for polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: an ELN and IWG-MRT consensus project. Blood. 2013;121:4778–81.
Barbui T, Thiele J, Passamonti F, Rumi E, Boveri E, Ruggeri M, et al. Survival and disease progression in essential thrombocythemia are significantly influenced by accurate morphologic diagnosis: an international study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:3179–84.
Barosi G, Tefferi A, Besses C, Birgegard G, Cervantes F, Finazzi G, et al. Clinical end points for drug treatment trials in BCR-ABL1-negative classic myeloproliferative neoplasms: consensus statements from European LeukemiaNET (ELN) and Internation Working Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT). Leukemia. 2015;29:20–26.
Vannucchi AM, Kiladjian JJ, Griesshammer M, Masszi T, Durrant S, Passamonti F, et al. Ruxolitinib versus standard therapy for the treatment of polycythemia vera. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:426–35.
Guglielmelli P, Pietra D, Pane F, Pancrazzi A, Cazzola M, Vannucchi AM, et al. Recommendations for molecular testing in classical Ph1-neg myeloproliferative disorders–A consensus project of the Italian Society of Hematology. Leuk Res. 2017;58:63–72.
Barbui T, Masciulli A, Marfisi MR, Tognoni G, Finazzi G, Rambaldi A, et al. White blood cell counts and thrombosis in polycythemia vera: a subanalysis of the CYTO-PV study. Blood. 2015;126:560–1.
Barbui T, Carobbio A, Rambaldi A, Finazzi G. Perspectives on thrombosis in essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera: is leukocytosis a causative factor? Blood. 2009;114:759–63.
Ronner L, Podoltsev N, Gotlib J, Heaney ML, Kuykendall AT, O’Connell C, et al. Persistent leukocytosis in polycythemia vera is associated with disease evolution but not thrombosis. Blood. 2020;135:1696–703.
Yacoub A, Mascarenhas J, Kosiorek H, Prchal JT, Berenzon D, Baer MR, et al. Pegylated interferon alfa-2a for polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia resistant or intolerant to hydroxyurea. Blood. 2019;134:1498–509.
Murphy S, Iland H, Rosenthal D, Laszlo J. Essential thrombocythemia: an interim report from the polycythemia vera study group. Semin Hematol. 1986;23:177–82.
Barosi G, Birgegard G, Finazzi G, Griesshammer M, Harrison C, Hasselbalch HC, et al. Response criteria for essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera: result of a European LeukemiaNet consensus conference. Blood. 2009;113:4829–33.
AMZ is a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society Scholar in Clinical Research and is also supported by a National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Clinical Investigator Team Leadership Award (CCITLA). Research reported in this publication was supported by the NCI of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number P30 CA016359 and Cancer Center Support Grant/Core Grant to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (P30 CA008748) The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Conflict of interest
NAP consulted for and received honoraria from Alexion, Pfizer, Agios Pharmaceuticals, Blueprint Medicines, Incyte, Novartis, Celgene, Bristol-Myers Squib and CTI biopharma. NAP received research funding (all to the institution) from Boehringer Ingelheim, Astellas Pharma, Daiichi Sankyo, Sunesis Pharmaceuticals, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Astex Pharmaceuticals, CTI biopharma, Celgene, Genentech, AI Therapeutics, Samus Therapeutics, Arog Pharmaceuticals and Kartos Therapeutics. MST has received research funding from Abbvie, Cellerant, Orsenix, ADC Therapeutics, and Biosight. RKR has received consulting fees from: Constellation, Incyte, Celgene, Promedior, CTI, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Blueprint, Stemline, and research funding from Incyte, Constellation, Stemline. MST has received honoraria for MST has received research funding from Abbvie, Cellerant, Orsenix, ADC Therapeutics, and Biosight. MST has received honoraria for advisory board membership from Abbvie, BioLineRx, Daiichi-Sankyo, Orsenix, KAHR, Rigel, Nohla, Delta Fly Pharma, Tetraphase, Oncolyze, and Jazz Pharma. MST received patents and royalties from UpToDate. AMZ received research funding (institutional) from Celgene, Acceleron, Abbvie, Novartis, Otsuka, Pfizer, Medimmune/AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Trovagene, Incyte, Takeda, and ADC Therapeutics. AMZ had a consultancy with and received honoraria from AbbVie, Otsuka, Pfizer, Celgene, Jazz, Ariad, Incyte, Agios, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novartis, Acceleron, Astellas, Daiichi Sankyo, Cardinal Health, Seattle Genetics, BeyondSpring, Trovagene, Ionis, Epizyme, Amgen, Tyme, Janssen, and Takeda. AMZ received travel support for meetings from Pfizer, Novartis, and Trovagene. None of these relationships were related to the development of this manuscript. All other authors report no relevant disclosures/competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Bewersdorf, J.P., Giri, S., Wang, R. et al. Interferon alpha therapy in essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Leukemia 35, 1643–1660 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01020-4
Biomarker Research (2021)