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Multiple myeloma gammopathies

Relapsed refractory multiple myeloma: a comprehensive overview

Abstract

Most patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) have been treated with drug combinations including a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and/or an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD). The goal of therapy for such patients is therefore to achieve disease control with acceptable toxicity and patient-defined decent quality of life. Physicians face a difficult task not only deciding who to treat, but also when to treat and how to treat, utilizing knowledge of previously administered therapies, patient comorbidities, potential adverse events, and patient wishes to make such a critical decision. New drugs and combination regimens are continuously underway thus broadening the options for therapy and giving way to a more individualized approach for patients with RRMM. The integration of novel agents into the treatment paradigm has shifted the perception of multiple myeloma (MM) from an incurable, fatal disease to a manageable, chronic one. This comprehensive review addresses the results and challenges posed by many of the newer agents for the treatment of RRMM. It attempts to propose a universal strategy for optimal therapy decision-making thus answering three simple fundamental questions—when to treat, how to treat, and how long to treat for.

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Bazarbachi, A.H., Al Hamed, R., Malard, F. et al. Relapsed refractory multiple myeloma: a comprehensive overview. Leukemia 33, 2343–2357 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0561-2

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