Abnormal metabolism is a fundamental hallmark of cancer and represents a therapeutic opportunity, yet its regulation by oncogenes remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover that JMJD1C, a jumonji C (JmjC)-containing H3K9 demethylase, is a critical regulator of aberrant metabolic processes in homeobox A9 (HOXA9)-dependent acute myeloid leukemia (AML). JMJD1C overexpression increases in vivo cell proliferation and tumorigenicity through demethylase-independent upregulation of a glycolytic and oxidative program, which sustains leukemic cell bioenergetics and contributes to an aggressive AML phenotype in vivo. Targeting JMJD1C-mediated metabolism via pharmacologic inhibition of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation led to ATP depletion, induced necrosis/apoptosis and decreased tumor growth in vivo in leukemias co-expressing JMJD1C and HOXA9. The anti-metabolic therapy effectively diminished AML stem/progenitor cells and reduced tumor burden in a primary AML patient-derived xenograft. Our data establish a direct link between drug responses and endogenous expression of JMJD1C and HOXA9 in human AML cell line- and patient-derived xenografts. These findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for JMJD1C in counteracting adverse metabolic changes and retaining the metabolic integrity during tumorigenesis, which can be exploited therapeutically.
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We thank Bing Liu, Jin Yi Lim, Emma Ramsay, and the staff of the Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre for their assistance, and the CCI tumor bank for human AML samples. This work was supported by NHMRC APP1128824 and Cancer Council NSW RG15-11 (J.Y.W.).
J.R.L., B.S., P.C. and H.H.L.L. performed experiments; A.P. and P.H. partially contributed to bioenergetic analysis; B.V., I.J., K.S., T.T., T.L., M.H., M.D.N., A.J.W. and J.W. contributed to experimental reagents; J.Y.W. wrote the paper, managed the project, and supported the work.