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We thank David Spencer, Chad Storer, and Catherine Cottrell for helpful discussions; and Felicitas Thol, Torsten Haferlach, Elli Papaemmanuil, Olivier Kosmider, and R. Coleman Lindsley for discussions and data related to their publications. Support was provided to MJW through a SPORE in Leukemia grant (P50CA171963) from the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute (NIH/NCI), the Edward P. Evans Foundation, the Lottie Caroline Hardy Trust, and a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society Scholar Award. Support for procurement of human samples was provided by an NIH/NCI grant (P01CA101937). Technical assistance was provided by the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center Tissue Procurement Core supported by an NCI Cancer Center Support Grant (P30CA91842).

Author information


  1. Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA

    • Michael O. Alberti
    • , Samantha N. McNulty
    • , Jonathan W. Heusel
    •  & Eric J. Duncavage
  2. Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA

    • Sridhar Nonavinkere Srivatsan
    • , Jin Shao
    • , Gue Su Chang
    • , Christopher A. Miller
    • , Qingsong Gao
    • , Li Ding
    •  & Matthew J. Walter
  3. McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA

    • Gue Su Chang
    • , Christopher A. Miller
    • , Qingsong Gao
    •  & Li Ding
  4. Department of Pathology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    • Jennifer B. Dunlap
    • , Fei Yang
    •  & Richard D. Press
  5. Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    • Fei Yang
    •  & Richard D. Press
  6. Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA

    • Li Ding
  7. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA

    • Li Ding
    •  & Matthew J. Walter


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Conception and design: MOA, EJD, MJW; methodology: MOA, SNS, EJD, CAM, QG, LD, MJW; data acquisition and analysis: MOA, SNS, JS, SNM, GSC, JBD, FY, RDP; interpretation of data: MOA, SNS, MJW; writing: MOA and MJW with all authors contributing to and approving the final manuscript; project supervision: JWH, EJD, MJW.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Matthew J. Walter.

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