Glioma is the most prevalent primary brain tumor in adults among which glioblastoma is the most malignant and lethal subtype. Its common resistance to conventional chemotherapeutics calls for the development of alternative or concomitant treatment. Taking advantage of its endocrine function as a neurosteroid, vitamin D has become a target of interest to be used in conjunction with different chemotherapies. In this article, we review the mechanisms through which vitamin D and its analogs induce anti-tumor activity in glioblastoma, and the practical issues relevant to their potential application based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Vitamin D has largely been reported to promote cell cycle arrest and induce cell death to suppress tumor growth in glioblastoma. Glioblastoma cells treated with vitamin D have also shown reduced migratory and invasive phenotypes, and reduced stemness. It is worth noting that vitamin D analogs are able to produce similar inhibitory actions without causing adverse effects such as hypercalcemia in vivo. Upregulation of vitamin D receptors by vitamin D and its analogs may also play a role in enhancing its anti-tumor activity. Based on current findings and taking into consideration its potential cancer-protective effects, the clinical application of vitamin D in glioblastoma treatment and prevention will be discussed. With some study findings subject to controversy, further investigation is warranted to elucidate the mechanism of action of vitamin D and to evaluate relevant issues regarding its treatment efficacy and potential clinical application.
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Lo, C.SC., Kiang, K.MY. & Leung, G.KK. Anti-tumor effects of vitamin D in glioblastoma: mechanism and therapeutic implications. Lab Invest (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00673-8