Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3), a cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor, has been shown to play a regulatory role in melanoma, although its function during tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ATF-3 exhibits tumor suppressive function in melanoma. Specifically, ATF-3 nuclear expression was significantly diminished with melanoma progression from nevi to primary to metastatic patient melanomas, correlating low expression with poor prognosis. Significantly low expression of ATF-3 was also found in cultured human metastatic melanoma cell lines. Importantly, overexpression of ATF-3 in metastatic melanoma cell lines significantly inhibited cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro; as well as abrogated tumor growth in a human melanoma xenograft mouse model in vivo. RNA sequencing analysis revealed downregulation of ERK and AKT pathways and upregulation in apoptotic-related genes in ATF-3 overexpressed melanoma cell lines, which was further validated by Western-blot analysis. In summary, this study demonstrated that diminished ATF-3 expression is associated with melanoma virulence and thus provides a potential target for novel therapies and prognostic biomarker applications.
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The RNA-sequencing data have been deposited to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE152460.
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This work was supported to XW by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0104604), the General Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (81772093), the Key Program of Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation (ZR2019ZD36) and the Key Research and Development Program of Shandong Province (2019GSF108107). CAAL is currently funded by T32 EB016652-06.
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Zu, T., Wang, D., Xu, S. et al. ATF-3 expression inhibits melanoma growth by downregulating ERK and AKT pathways. Lab Invest (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-00516-y