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  • Review Article
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Fundamentals of designing high-quality surveys: revisiting neonatal perinatal medicine survey applications


Surveys in neonatal perinatal medicine are practical instruments for gathering information about medical practices, and outcomes related to the care of newborns and infants. This includes research for identifying needs, assessing requirements, analyzing the effects of change, creating policies, and developing curriculum initiatives. Surveys also provide useful data for enhancing the provision of healthcare services, assessing medical specialties, and evaluating training programs. However, creating a high-quality survey can be difficult for many practitioners, particularly when deciding how to formulate the right questions, whether to utilize various types of questions and how best to arrange or format the survey tool for effective responses. Problems with design principles have been evident in many surveys submitted for dissemination to the members of the Section of Neonatal Perinatal Medicine (SoNPM). To prevent potential measurement errors and increase the quality of surveys, it is crucial to follow a systematic approach in developing surveys by adhering to the principles of effective survey design. This review article provides a brief summary of survey use within the SoNPM, and offers guidance for creating high-quality surveys, including identifying important factors to consider in survey development and characteristics of well-written and effective questions. We briefly note techniques that optimize survey design for distribution through digital media.

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Authors and Affiliations



KOL conceptualized and designed the perspective manuscript, wrote the initial draft, and subsequently revised the manuscript. HWK conceptualized the manuscript, added input regarding the use of surveys within the SoNPM, reviewed and revised the manuscript. CB and DJB reviewed and provided critical revision of the manuscript. All authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript for submission and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

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Correspondence to Kadriye O. Lewis.

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Lewis, K.O., Kilbride, H.W., Bose, C. et al. Fundamentals of designing high-quality surveys: revisiting neonatal perinatal medicine survey applications. J Perinatol 44, 777–784 (2024).

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