Surfactant administration via an endotracheal tube (ETT) has been the standard of care for infants with respiratory distress syndrome for decades. As non-invasive ventilation has become commonplace in the NICU, methods for administering surfactant without use of an ETT have been developed. These methods include thin catheter techniques (LISA, MIST), aerosolization/ nebulization, and surfactant administration through laryngeal (LMA) or supraglottic airways (SALSA). This review will describe these methods and discuss considerations and implementation into clinical practice.
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Guthrie and Roberts are paid consultants for ONY Biotech.
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Guthrie, S.O., Roberts, K.D. Less invasive surfactant administration methods: Who, what and how. J Perinatol (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-023-01778-2