This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 print issues and online access
$259.00 per year
only $21.58 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
The datasets for this paper are not publicly available because, per the NIH-approved ECHO Data Sharing Policy, ECHO-wide data have not yet been made available to the public for review/analysis. Requests to access the datasets should be directed to the ECHO Data Analysis Center, ECHO-DAC@rti.org.
Strahan AE, Guy GP, Bohm M, Frey M, Ko JY. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome incidence and health care costs in the United States, 2016. JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174:200–2. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.4791
Patrick SW, Schumacher RE, Benneyworth BD, Krans EE, McAllister JM, Davis MM. Neonatal abstinence syndrome and associated health care expenditures: United States, 2000-2009. J Am Med Assoc. 2012;307:1934–40. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.3951
R Core Development Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.r-project.org. Published 2020.
Buuren S, Groothuis-Oudshoorn K. MICE: Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations in R. J Stat Softw. 2011;45:1–67. https://doi.org/10.18637/JSS.V045.I03. van
Bada HS, Das A, Bauer CR, Shankaran S, Lester B, LaGasse L, et al. Impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on child behavior problems through school age. Pediatrics. 2007;119:e348–e359.
Patrick SW, Barfield WD, Poindexter BB. Committee on Fetus and Newborn, Committee on Substance Use and Prevention. Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome. Pediatrics. 2020;146:e2020029074.
The authors wish to thank our ECHO colleagues, the medical, nursing and program staff, as well as the children and families participating in the ECHO cohorts. We also acknowledge the contribution of the following ECHO program collaborators: ECHO Components—Coordinating Center: Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina: Smith PB, Newby KL; ECHO Awardees and Cohorts—Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA: Camargo C; Emory University, Atlanta, GA: Dunlop A; University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD: Elliot A; Kaiser Foundation Research Institute, Oakland, CA: Ferrara A; University of California, Davis, Sacramento CA: Hertz-Picciotto I; University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY: O’Connor T; Magee-Women’s Research Institute & Foundation, Pittsburgh, PA: Simhan H; University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT: Stanford J.
Research reported in this publication was supported by the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program, Office of The Director, National Institutes of Health, under Award Numbers U2COD023375 (Coordinating Center), U24OD023382 (Data Analysis Center), U24OD023319 (PRO Core), UH3OD023253 (PI Camargo), UH3OD023318 (PI Dunlop), and UH3OD023279 (PI Elliot). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
All original data collection as well as the present analyses were performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol was approved by the local [or single ECHO] institutional review board. Written informed consent or parent’s/guardian’s permission was obtained along with child assent as appropriate, for ECHO-wide Cohort Data Collection Protocol participation and for participation in specific cohorts.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Ondersma, S.J., Kress, A.M., Stroustrup, A. et al. The association between intrauterine exposure to opioids, tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis and length of birth hospitalization among neonates without NOWS. J Perinatol 43, 949–951 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-023-01694-5