This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Wu C, Löfqvist C, Smith LE, VanderVeen DK, Hellström A, WINROP Consortium. Importance of early postnatal weight gain for normal retinal angiogenesis in very preterm infants: a multicenter study analyzing weight velocity deviations for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:992–9. https://doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.243.
Kim SJ, Port AD, Swan R, Campbell JP, Chan RVP, Chiang MF. Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of risk factors and their clinical significance. Surv Ophthalmol. 2018;63:618–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.survophthal.2018.04.002.
VanderVeen DK, Martin CR, Mehendale R, Allred EN, Dammann O, Leviton A. ELGAN Study Investigators. Early nutrition and weight gain in preterm newborns and the risk of retinopathy of prematurity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64325. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064325.
Singh C, Hoppe G, Tran V, McCollum L, Bolok Y, Song W, et al. Serine and 1-carbon metabolism are required for HIF-mediated protection against retinopathy of prematurity. JCI Insight. 2019;4:e129398. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.129398.
Paris LP, Johnson CH, Aguilar E, Usui Y, Cho K, Hoang LT, et al. Global metabolomics reveals metabolic dysregulation in ischemic retinopathy. Metabolomics. 2016;12:15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306-015-0877-5.
Bueva A, Guignard JP. Renal function in preterm neonates. Pediatr Res. 1994;36:572–7. https://doi.org/10.1203/00006450-199411000-00005.
Pierce EA, Foley ED, Smith LE. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by oxygen in a model of retinopathy of prematurity. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114:1219–28.
Hard AL, Smith LE, Hellstrom A. Nutrition, insulin-like growth factor-1 and retinopathy of prematurity. Semin fetal neonatal Med. 2013;18:136–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2013.01.006.
Weintraub AS, Blanco V, Barnes M, Green RS. Impact of renal function and protein intake on blood urea nitrogen in preterm infants in the first 3 weeks of life. J Perinatol. 2015;35:52–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/jp.2014.138.
Singh C, Tran V, McCollum L, Bolok Y, Allan K, Yuan A, et al. Hyperoxia induces glutamine-fuelled anaplerosis in retinal Muller cells. Nat Commun. 2020;11:1277. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15066-6.
Bringmann A, Pannicke T, Grosche J, Francke M, Wiedemann P, Skatchkov SN, et al. Muller cells in the healthy and diseased retina. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2006;25:397–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2006.05.003.
Hard AL, Smith LE, Hellstrom A. Nutrition, insulin-like growth factor-1 and retinopathy of prematurity. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013;18:136–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2013.01.006.
Haussinger D, Lamers WH, Moorman AF. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of amino acids and ammonia. Enzyme. 1992;46:72–93. https://doi.org/10.1159/000468779.
Zhou Y, Xu Y, Zhang X, Huang Q, Tan W, Yang Y, et al. Plasma levels of amino acids and derivatives in retinopathy of prematurity. Int J Med Sci. 2021;18:3581–7. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.63603.
Yang Y, Yang Q, Luo S, Zhang Y, Lian C, He H, et al. Comparative analysis reveals novel changes in plasma metabolites and metabolomic networks of infants with retinopathy of prematurity. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2022;63:28. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.1.28.
The authors declare no competing interests.
The need for consent was waived for this study by the IRB.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Das, A., Bhattacharjee, I., Heis, F. et al. Blood urea nitrogen, a marker for severe retinopathy of prematurity?. J Perinatol (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-023-01618-3