Pulmonary hemorrhage is a rare but severe complication of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. The association of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) and the diameter of the foramen ovale (FO) with pulmonary hemorrhage has not been reported.
Case control study of ELBW infants with and without pulmonary hemorrhage. Each ELBW infant with an echocardiogram within 48 h of pulmonary hemorrhage was analyzed.
16 infants with pulmonary hemorrhage were matched with 32 controls by birth weight and gestational age. Echocardiogram showed hsPDA in all infants and those with pulmonary hemorrhage had significantly smaller patent FO [PFO] (1 vs 2.4 mm, p < 0.01) (OR 0.007; 95% CI 0.00007, 0.67 p = 0.03). Incidence of pulmonary hemorrhage was 8.9%.
ELBW infants with hsPDA who experienced pulmonary hemorrhage had a significantly restricted or closed FO. Evaluation of FO should be considered with serial echocardiograms when evaluating for hsPDA.
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We would like to thank the neonatologists, neonatal fellows, and staff at LAC + USC Medical Center NICU for their dedication and hard work in taking care of sick infants. There was no funding for this study.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Kappico, J.M., Cayabyab, R., Ebrahimi, M. et al. Pulmonary hemorrhage in extremely low birth weight infants: Significance of the size of left to right shunting through a valve incompetent patent foramen ovale. J Perinatol 42, 1233–1237 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-022-01464-9