Table 1 Infant and maternal sociodemographic characteristics from the PEACE Study, data collected between May 21, 2020 and September 23, 2020.

From: COVID-19-related health worries compound the psychiatric distress experienced by families of high-risk infants

Predictors Means or % Statistical test
Overall (n = 628) Non-NICU (n = 565) NICU (n = 63)
Infant characteristics
NICU
 No 90.0 %    
 Yes 10.0 %    
  Preterm (≤37 weeks)
   No 58.7 %    
   Yes 41.3 %    
Child age (weeks) M = 11.88, SD = 7.37 M = 11.95, SD = 7.29 M = 11.27, SD = 8.05 t(626) = 0.70, p = ns
Maternal characteristics
Maternal age (years) M = 33.55, SD = 3.45 M = 33.56, SD = 3.47 M = 33.41, SD = 3.31 t(626) = 0.74, p = ns
Maternal race
 White 89.5% 89.2% 92.1% χ2(4) = 3.87, p = ns
 Black or African American 0.5% 0.5% 0%  
 Hispanic or Latino 4.0% 4.2% 1.6%  
 Asian and Pacific Islander 3.7% 3.9% 1.6%  
 Other 2.4% 2.1% 4.8%  
Maternal education
 Less than college 7.0% 6.0% 15.9% χ2(3) = 10.39, p = 0.016*
 College 28.7% 28.2% 33.3%  
 Masters 44.8% 45.7% 36.5%  
 Doctorate 19.5% 20.0% 14.3%  
Household income (USD/year)
 <$74,999 12.1% 11.9% 14.3% χ2(3) = 3.80, p = ns
 $75,000–149,999 39.5% 38.6% 47.6%  
 $150,000–224,999 27.5% 27.8% 25.4%  
 ≥$225,000 20.9% 21.8% 12.7%  
Cohabitating with spouse/partner
 Yes 98.7% 98.9% 96.8% χ2(1) = 2.01, p = ns
 No 1.3% 1.1% 3.2%  
First pregnancy
 Yes 41.4% 41.1% 44.4% χ2(1) = 0.27, p = ns
 No 58.6% 58.9% 55.6%  
Days between survey completion and pandemic start M = 124.22, SD = 30.55 M = 124.29, SD = 30.38 M = 123.59, SD = 32.33 t(626) = 0.17, p = ns
COVID-19-related health worries
 High 18.0% 17.0% 27.0% χ2(1)=3.84, p = 0.05
 Low 82.0% 83.0% 73.0%  
Number of life events (past year) M = 1.36, SD = 1.36 M = 1.34, SD = 1.36 M = 1.52, SD = 1.38 t(626) = −1.01, p = ns
Instrumental social support M = 17.95, SD = 2.93 M = 17.96, SD = 2.93 M = 17.86, SD = 3.03 t(626) = 0.25, p = ns
Daily discrimination experiences M = 31.41, SD = 3.91 M = 31.36, SD = 3.93 M = 31.89, SD = 3.65 t(626) = −1.03, p = ns
Pre-existing mental health diagnosis
 Depression 15.1% 13.5% 30.2% χ2(1) = 12.32, p < 0.001***
 Generalized anxiety 21.5% 20.7% 28.6% χ2(1) = 2.07, p = ns
 PTSD 3.8% 3.9% 3.2% χ2(1) = 0.08, p = ns
Mental health symptoms (means)
 Depression (CES-D) M = 13.37, SD = 9.05 M = 13.17, SD = 8.91 M = 15.21, SD = 10.11 t(617) = −1.68, p = 0.09
 Generalized anxiety (GAD-7) M = 6.47, SD = 5.08 M = 6.30, SD = 4.97 M = 8.00, SD = 5.75 t(604) = −2.51, p = 0.01*
 PTSD (PCL-C) M = 30.18, SD = 11.16 M = 29.64, SD = 10.83 M = 35.17, SD = 12.82 t(599) = −3.65, p < 0.001***
 Loneliness (LS) M = 5.50, SD = 1.64 M = 5.50, SD = 1.64 M = 5.84, SD = 1.83 t(623) = −1.71, p = 0.09
  1. p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.