Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Impact of human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, and tuberculosis on adverse pregnancy outcomes in the United States

Abstract

Objective

To compare rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria-infected patients in the United States with those of uninfected patients.

Study design

A nationally representative sample of 24,149,664 singleton live births were identified using pregnancy hospitalizations that resulted in delivery between 1998–2000 and 2009–2011 in this retrospective cohort study. Maternal and fetal outcomes were evaluated.

Results

There were 7204 HIV cases, 1450 TB cases, and 296 malaria cases over the two time periods, and the average age of infected subjects was 28.3. The HIV group was more likely to have almost all adverse pregnancy outcomes than the control group in both time periods. The 2009–2011 HIV group was more likely to undergo cesarean delivery than the 1998–2000 HIV group [1959 versus 1649, p < 0.0001].

Conclusion

Out of pregnant women infected with HIV, malaria, or tuberculosis, those infected with HIV are more likely to experience several adverse pregnancy outcomes than uninfected women.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    Kourtis AP, Ellington S, Pazol K, Flowers L, Haddad L, Jamieson J. Complication of cesarean deliveries among HIV-infected women in the United States. AIDS. 2014;28:2609–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kourtis AP, Bansil P, McPheeters M, Meikle SF, Posner SF, Jamieson DJ. Hospitalizations of pregnant HIV-infected women in the USA prior to and during the era of HAART, 1994–2003. AIDS. 2006;20:1823–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Arab K, Spence AR, Czuzoj-Shulman N, Abenhaim HA. Pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive women: a retrospective cohort study. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;295:599–606.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    El-Messidi A, Czuzoj-Shulman N, Spence AR, Abenhaim HA. Medical and obstetric outcomes among pregnant women with tuberculosis: a population-based study of 7.8 million births. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215:e1–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    World Health Organization. World Malaria Report 2015. 2015. https://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2015/wmr2015-without-profiles.pdf?ua=1.

  6. 6.

    Callaghan WM, Creanga AA, Kuklina EV. Severe maternal morbidity among delivery and postpartum hospitalizations in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120:1029–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Ewing AC, Datwani HM, Flowers LM, Ellington SR, Jamieson DJ, Kourtis AP. Trends in hospitalizations of pregnant HIV-infected women in the United States: 2004 through 2011. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215:499.e1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dominguez KL, Lindegren ML, D’Almada PJ, Peters VB, Frederick T, Rakusan TA, et al. Increasing trend of cesarean deliveries in HIV-infected women in the United States from 1994 to 2000. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;33:232–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Read JS, Newell M-L. Efficacy and safety of cesarean delivery for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;CD005479.

  10. 10.

    International Perinatal HIV Group, Andiman W, Bryson Y, de Martino M, et al. The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 — a meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:977–87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Panburana P, Sirinavin S, Phuapradit W, Vibhagool A, Chantratita W. Elective cesarean delivery plus short-course lamivudine and zidovudine for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:803–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Forsyth BWC, Davis JA, Freudigman KA, Katz KH, Zelterman D. Pregnancy and birth rates among HIV-infected women in the United States: the confounding effects of illicit drug use. AIDS. 2002;16:471–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Enhanced perinatal surveillance - 15 areas, 2005-2008. HIV Surveill Suppl Rep 2011. 2011;16:5–32.

  14. 14.

    Desale M, Thinkhamrop J, Lumbiganon P, Qazi S, Anderson J. Ending preventable maternal and newborn deaths due to infection. Best Pr Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016;36:116–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Schmit KM, Wansaula Z, Pratt R, Price SF, Langer AJ. Tuberculosis - United States, 2016. Weekly. 2017;66:289–94.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnoses of HIV infections in the United States and dependent areas, 2015. HIV Surveill Rep. 2016;27:1–114.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV in the United States and dependent areas. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/ataglance.html. 2019.

  18. 18.

    Salazar-Austin N, Hoffmann J, Cohn S, Mashabela F, Waja Z, Lala S, et al. Poor obstetric and infant outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women with tuberculosis in South Africa: The Tshepiso Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66:921–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Homa K. Ahmadzia.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ahmadzia, H.K., Khorrami, N., Carter, J.A. et al. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, and tuberculosis on adverse pregnancy outcomes in the United States. J Perinatol 40, 240–247 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-019-0512-9

Download citation

Search

Quick links