To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants at 18–21 months corrected age (CA) whose mothers smoked during pregnancy to those whose mothers did not smoke.
Preterm infants born at <29 weeks of gestation and evaluated at 18–21 months CA were included. Primary outcome was a composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI).
Of a total of 2760 infants, 699 met exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 2061 infants, 280 (13.6%) were exposed to maternal smoking and 1781 (86.4%) were not. The odds of the composite outcome of death or NDI (aOR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.03–1.91), NDI alone (aOR 1.43; 95% CI: 1.01–2.03), and Bayley-III motor score <85 (aOR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.31–2.81) were higher in exposed infants.
Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with adverse composite outcome of death or NDI, NDI alone and lower motor scores at 18–21 months CA.
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We gratefully acknowledge all investigators and data abstractors of the Canadian Neonatal and Follow-Up Networks. We also thank Sarah Hutchinson, PhD, from the Maternal-Infant Care Research Centre for editorial assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.
Organizational support was provided by the Maternal-Infant Care Research Centre (MiCare) at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, ON, Canada. Neonatal follow-up data were supported by a team grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (FRN87518) awarded to Dr. Shoo Lee, and in-kind support from Mount Sinai Hospital. Dr. Prakesh Shah holds an Applied Research Chair in Reproductive and Child Health Services and Policy Research awarded by the CIHR (APR-126340). The funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Canadian Neonatal Network site investigators
Prakesh S. Shah, MD, MSc (Director, Canadian Neonatal Network and site investigator), Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario; Adele Harrison, MD, MBChB, Victoria General Hospital, Victoria, British Columbia; Anne Synnes, MDCM, MHSC, and Joseph Ting, MD, B.C. Women’s Hospital and Health Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia; Zenon Cieslak, MD, Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, British Columbia; Rebecca Sherlock, MD, Surrey Memorial Hospital, Surrey, British Columbia; Wendy Yee, MD, Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, Alberta; Khalid Aziz, MBBS, MA, MEd, and Jennifer Toye, MD, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta; Carlos Fajardo, MD, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta; Zarin Kalapesi, MD, Regina General Hospital, Regina, Saskatchewan; Koravangattu Sankaran, MD, MBBS, and Sibasis Daspal, MD, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Mary Seshia, MBChB, Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba; Ruben Alvaro, MD, St. Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba; Amit Mukerji, MD, Hamilton Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, Ontario; Orlando Da Silva, MD, MSc, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario; Chuks Nwaesei, MD, Windsor Regional Hospital, Windsor, Ontario; Kyong-Soon Lee, MD, MSc, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario; Michael Dunn, MD, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario; Brigitte Lemyre, MD, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario and Ottawa General Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario; Kimberly Dow, MD, Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario; Victoria Bizgu, MD, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Québec; Keith Barrington, MBChB, Hôpital Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec; Christine Drolet, MD, and Bruno Piedboeuf, MD, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Sainte Foy, Québec; Martine Claveau, MSc, LLM, NNP, and Marc Beltempo, MD, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec; Valerie Bertelle, MD, and Edith Masse, MD, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec; Roderick Canning, MD, Moncton Hospital, Moncton, New Brunswick; Hala Makary, MD, Dr. Everett Chalmers Hospital, Fredericton, New Brunswick; Cecil Ojah, MBBS, and Luis Monterrosa, MD, Saint John Regional Hospital, Saint John, New Brunswick; Akhil Deshpandey, MBBS, MRCPI, Janeway Children’s Health and Rehabilitation Centre, St. John’s, Newfoundland; Jehier Afifi, MB BCh, MSc, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia; Andrzej Kajetanowicz, MD, Cape Breton Regional Hospital, Sydney, Nova Scotia; Shoo K Lee, MBBS, PhD (Chairman, Canadian Neonatal Network), Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario.
Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network
Thevanisha Pillay, MD, Victoria General Hospital, Victoria, British Columbia; Anne Synnes, MDCM, MHSC (Director, CNFUN), B.C. Women’s Hospital and Health Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia; Reg Sauvé, MD, MPh, Leonora Hendson MBBCH, MSc, Alberta’s Children’s Hospital, Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, Alberta; Amber Reichert, MD, Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta; Jaya Bodani, MD, Regina General Hospital, Regina, Saskatchewan; Koravangattu Sankaran, MD, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Diane Moddemann, MD, Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre, St. Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba; Chuks Nwaesei, MD, Windsor Regional Hospital, Windsor, Ontario; Thierry Daboval, MD, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario; Kimberly Dow, Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario; David Lee, MD, Children’s Hospital London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario; Linh Ly, MD, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario; Edmond Kelly, MD, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario; Salhab el Helou, MD, Hamilton Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, Ontario; Paige Church, MD, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario; Ermelinda Pelausa, MD, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Québec; Patricia Riley, MD, Montréal Children’s Hospital, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montréal, Québec; Francine Levebrve, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec; Charlotte Demers, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec; Sylvie Bélanger, MD, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec City, Québec; Roderick Canning, MD, Moncton Hospital, Moncton, New Brunswick; Luis Monterrosa, MD, Saint John Regional Hospital, Saint John, New Brunswick; Hala Makary, MD, Dr. Everett Chalmers Hospital, Fredericton, New Brunswick; Michael Vincer, MD, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia; Phil Murphy, Charles Janeway Children’s Health and Rehabilitation Centre, St. John’s, Newfoundland.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Members of the Canadian Neonatal Network and the Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network are listed below the Acknowledgements.