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Blood pressure control and its associated factors among patients with heart failure in Jordan


Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events including heart failure. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with poor BP control among patients with heart failure at two major outpatient cardiology clinics in Jordan. Variables including socio-demographics, biomedical variables, in addition to disease and medication characteristics were collected using medical records and custom-designed questionnaire. The validated 4-item Medication Adherence Scale was used to assess medication adherence. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the significant and independent predictors of poor BP control. Regression analysis results revealed that being not satisfied with the prescribed medication (OR = 2.882; 95% CI: 1.458–5.695; P < 0.01), reporting moderate medication adherence (OR = 0.203; 95% CI: 22 0.048–0.863; P < 0.05), not receiving digoxin (OR = 3.423; 95% CI: 1.346–8.707; P < 0.05), and not receiving aldosterone antagonist (OR = 2.044; 95% CI: 1.038-4.025; P < 0.05) were associated with poor BP control. Future interventions should focus on increasing medication satisfaction and enhancing medication adherence, in order to improve BP control among patients with heart failure.

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Data availability

The data generated and/or analyzed during the present study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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Author information

Authors and Affiliations



All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by AJ, WA, and HH. The first draft of the manuscript was written by HH, SA, and AJ and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final draft of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anan S. Jarab.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical approval

Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of KAUH at Jordan University of Science and Technology (Ref. # 32/141/2021) on July 1st, 2021.

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Jarab, A.S., Hamam, H.W., Al-Qerem, W.A. et al. Blood pressure control and its associated factors among patients with heart failure in Jordan. J Hum Hypertens (2023).

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