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Self-care practice and associated factors among hypertensive follow-up patients at East Gojam zone public hospitals, North West Ethiopia, 2021

Abstract

Uncontrolled hypertension leads to cardiovascular complications and organ damage. Self-care practice is crucial for the prevention and management of hypertension by improving quality of life, preventing complications and decreasing health care expenditure. The study aimed to assess self-care practice and its associated factors among hypertensive follow up patients at East Gojjam Zone public hospitals; in Northwest Ethiopia. Quantitative cross-sectional study design and qualitative phenomenological approach were applied. The quantitative result was supported by in-depth interview. Out of 480 patients included in the study, 49% have good self-care practices. Out of the total participants 44.6% have poor in antihypertensive medication adherence, 92.5% have low in diet management, 82.8% were poorly practiced physical activity and 62.5% poor practice to weight management. Participants who cannot read and write (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.6–5.9), and have no comorbidity (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.6), uncontrolled blood pressure status (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2–3.6), poor social support status (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5–4.3) and unfavorable attitude (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9–5.2) are the factors for poor self-care practice. During interview; family meal preparation habits, inadequate information about self-care practice during follow-up time, inconvenient working environment, pressure during social events to share food, negligence, and poor self-efficacy were highly described as challenges for practicing and sustaining self- care. The level of hypertension self-care practices was found to be low. Therefore, hypertension self-care practices should be strengthened throughout their follow-up time, and creating awareness in the community is highly encouraged.

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Fig. 1: Y- axis level of self-care in percent and X- axis show the components of self-care.

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All materials and data are available from the corresponding author without any restriction.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to express our great thanks to Debre-Markos University, College of health science for their willingness and support. Next, our great thanks also go to the hospital administrators of the study area. Lastly, we acknowledge our data collectors, supervisors, and friends that support us throughout our work.

Funding

The work was supported by Debre-Markos University, College of health sciences. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funders. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Contributions

BA and HZ performed the analysis and interpretations. TS wrote the first draft, and BA, HZ, MM and NM contributed to the design of the study and substantive revision of the final draft. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Haymanot Zeleke.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical approval and consent to participate

Ethical approval (246/14) for the study was obtained from Debre Markos University health Science College, an ethical review approval, and a supporting letter was obtained from the selected hospital administration. Data were collected after informed verbal consent is obtained from the participants. Confidentiality of the information was maintained by excluding names as identification in the questionnaire & keeping their privacy during the data collection.

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Assefa, B., Zeleke, H., Sergo, T. et al. Self-care practice and associated factors among hypertensive follow-up patients at East Gojam zone public hospitals, North West Ethiopia, 2021. J Hum Hypertens (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-022-00775-w

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