This study aims to assess the associations of functional outcomes following acute ischemic stroke (IS) with ambulatory pulse rate (PR) and characterize the time-variant properties of the associations. The prospective cohort consisted of 1831 patients who had ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and PR monitoring following acute IS, and neurologic status evaluated at discharge and 3-month follow-up. The neurologic disability was defined as modified Rankin Scale ≥3. Logistic regression and generalized penalized functional regression models were used to examine the associations of ambulatory BP and PR with neurologic disability. Adjusting for covariates, the neurologic disability at discharge and 3-month was associated with high average 24-h, daytime, and nocturnal PR (odds ratio, OR = 1.20–1.34; p < 0.05 for all), high standard derivation of nocturnal PR (OR = 1.19 and 1.32; p < 0.05 for both), and low nocturnal PR decline (OR = 0.76 and 0.76; p < 0.05 for both). The OR functions of ambulatory PR on neurologic disability were “W-shaped” from 0 a.m. to 12 p.m., with ORs >1 in the wee hours and at noon, and ORs <1 before dawn and at night. The ambulatory BP profiles were not associated with neurologic disability at discharge or 3-month. The ambulatory PR is associated with the risk of short-term neurologic disability of stroke patients, with four different phases in a 24-h cycle. Ambulatory PR monitoring, especially nocturnal PR monitoring, has significant clinical implications for the prevention of short-term neurologic disability in stroke inpatients.
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Fan, B., Lv, W., Xu, J. et al. Time-variant associations of ambulatory pulse rate with short-term neurologic functional outcomes following acute ischemic stroke. J Hum Hypertens (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-022-00763-0