It is well documented that connective tissue disease (CTD) is a type of autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation, which can occur across various organ systems throughout the whole body. Although the clinical manifestations of CTD are different, studies have shown that different CTD diseases have similar pathogenesis, implying that different CTD diseases may have similar clinical outcomes. Recent population-based studies have demonstrated an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CTD compared with the control group, which is partially attributed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension (HT), and that controlling the patients’ blood pressure (BP) still constitutes one of the most effective means to prevent CVD. Although many studies have shown that the prevalence of HT in patients with CTD is higher than that in the general population, there is a lack of adequate data on the possible pathogenesis of HT. Also, the factors that promote the rise of BP, especially the relationship between connective tissue disease- hypertension (CTD-HT) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (aging, sex, race, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, etc.), have not been fully confirmed. In this review, we explore the mechanisms that might lead to elevated BP in patients with CTD and the factors that contribute to elevated BP and the management of CTD-HT, and we focus on whether traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the disease, and the presence of related therapeutic drugs are associated with an increased risk of HT in patients with CTD.
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We want to thank Dr. Peiying Gao for her helpful assistance in preparing this manuscript. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant 81300243].
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Luo, Q., Zhang, Y., Yang, X. et al. Hypertension in connective tissue disease. J Hum Hypertens (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-022-00696-8