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Prevalence and associated factors of undiagnosed hypertension among women aged 15–49 years in India: an analysis of National Family Health Survey-4 data


Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease globally. Although Indian studies have addressed the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors, this study focuses upon women in the reproductive age group, 15–49 years, who have undiagnosed hypertension. We use NFHS-4 data for secondary analyses of prevalence and factors associated with undiagnosed hypertension among women aged 15–49 years in India. Multiple logistic regression was undertaken to identify associated factors. Our analyses showed that overall prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was 18.69% among women aged 15–49 years in India. In rural areas, it was 17.09% compared  and 21.73% in urban areas. By comparison, only 8.86% self-reported a diagnosis of hypertension. Factors associated with undiagnosed hypertension were age, less than or more than normal BMI, higher wealth quintiles, no education, religion, caste, and geographical zones. Almost one in five women aged 15–49 years in India has undiagnosed hypertension with implications for personal and reproductive health.

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Fig. 1: Flowchart showing NFHS-4 data on women aged 15–49 years, deriving the sample for women with undiagnosed hypertension.
Fig. 2: Map of India showing statewise depiction of prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension among women aged 15–49 years in rural India.
Fig. 3: Map of India showing statewise depiction of prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension among women aged 15–49 years in urban India.


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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vrijesh Tripathi.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

We obtained permission from the United States Agency for International Development-supported Demographic and Health Survey Program at ICF to access individual records from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) site. India’s Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the ICF institutional review board approved the 2015–2016 NFHS survey protocol [13]. Our study uses secondary data and thus is exempted from requirements of obtaining ethical approvals.

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Talukdar, D., Tripathi, M., Tripathi, V. et al. Prevalence and associated factors of undiagnosed hypertension among women aged 15–49 years in India: an analysis of National Family Health Survey-4 data. J Hum Hypertens (2020).

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