Among individuals with hypertension, controlling high blood pressure (BP) reduces the risk for cardiovascular events and death. Reducing dietary sodium can help achieve BP control. The study aim was to use a population-based sample utilizing the gold standard for urinary sodium to quantify the degree with which sodium was independently associated with BP control among individuals with hypertension. Participants included 1568 adults from the Heart Follow-Up Study, a New York City population-based representative study conducted in 2010. Participants collected urine for 24 h and had BP and other anthropometrics measured. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg, or being on BP lowering medication. Sodium intake (mg/day) was measured from a single 24-h urine collection. Hypertension prevalence was 30.8%. Among those with hypertension, 64.6% were aware, 56.3% were treated, and 40.3% were controlled. Among those treated for hypertension, 73.0% were controlled. Mean sodium intake among those with hypertension was 3564 mg/day. From multivariable adjusted logistic regression models, each 500 mg decrease in 24-h urinary sodium excretion was associated with a 18% higher odds of hypertension control among those with hypertension (1.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.30). In New York City, approximately one in three people has hypertension with a majority uncontrolled. Sodium intake among those with hypertension was 55% greater than recommended upper limit of 2300 mg per day. Among individuals with hypertension, lower sodium intake was associated with hypertension control.
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Elfassy, T., Chamany, S., Bartley, K. et al. Lower 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with hypertension control: the 2010 Heart Follow-Up Study. J Hum Hypertens (2019) doi:10.1038/s41371-019-0285-9