Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Exercise and sport science australia position stand update on exercise and hypertension


Hypertension is the most common circulatory system condition, accounting for >40% of the cardiovascular disease total burden. One-third of Australians aged over 18 years have hypertension and in 68% of these it is uncontrolled. Australian data show hypertension accounts for 6% of general practitioner (GP) consults. Recent evidence has confirmed exercise is an effective adjunct therapy for hypertension management and the objective of this document is to provide a contemporary, evidence-based guide for optimal delivery of an exercise programme for blood pressure management. This work is an update to the 2009 Exercise and Sport Science Australia (ESSA) position stand. In most cases, the first line treatment to reduce BP is initiation of lifestyle changes, of which regular aerobic exercise is a principal component. Aerobic and resistance activities remain the cornerstone of exercise-based management of blood pressure, but recent work has uncovered variations on traditional delivery of exercise, such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) and a new exercise modality, isometric resistance training (IRT) may offer alternative management regimens. Exercise Physiologists, as well as other health care professionals, play an important role in helping to achieve BP control in patients with hypertension by reinforcing healthy lifestyle habits and prescribing appropriate exercise.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    Olsen MH, Angell SY, Asma S, Boutouyrie P, Burger D, Chirinos JA, et al. A call to action and a lifecourse strategy to address the global burden of raised blood pressure on current and future generations: the Lancet Commission on hypertension. Lancet. 2016;388:2665–712.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    AIHW. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: High blood pressure 2016. 2016; Accessed 6 Feb 2019.

  3. 3.

    Britt H, Miller G, Knox S. General practice activity in Australia 2000–01. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2001.

  4. 4.

    Khan NA, Hemmelgarn B, Herman RJ, Rabkin SW, McAlister FA, Bell CM, et al. The 2008 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for the management of hypertension: part 2 - therapy. Can J Cardiol. 2008;24:465–75.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Whelton PK, He J, Appel LJ, Cutler JA, Havas S, Kotchen TA, et al. Primary prevention of hypertension: clinical and public health advisory from The National High Blood Pressure Education Program. JAMA. 2002;288:1882–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    National Heart Foundation Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults-2016. Med J Aust. 2016;205:85–89.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, Agabiti Rosei E, Azizi M, Burnier M, et al. 2018 ESC/ESH guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2018;39:3021–104.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr., Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71:e127–e248.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Nadar SK, Stowasser M. New guidelines with few takers: will the new American guidelines ever be accepted? J Hum Hypertens. 2018;32:387–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Group SR, Wright JT Jr., Williamson JD, Whelton PK, Snyder JK, Sink KM, et al. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2103–16.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;114:555–76.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr., et al. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003;289:2560–72.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    The DASH diet eating plan. Accessed 22 Aug 2008.

  14. 14.

    Beevers G, Lip GY, O’Brien E. ABC of hypertension. Blood pressure measurement. Part I-sphygmomanometry: factors common to all techniques. BMJ. 2001;322:981–5.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Beevers G, Lip GY, O’Brien E. ABC of hypertension: blood pressure measurement. Part II-conventional sphygmomanometry: technique of auscultatory blood pressure measurement. BMJ. 2001;322:1043–7.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    O’Brien E, Beevers G, Lip GY. ABC of hypertension. Blood pressure measurement. Part III-automated sphygmomanometry: ambulatory blood pressure measurement. BMJ. 2001;322:1110–4.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Sharman JE, LaGerche A. Exercise blood pressure: clinical relevance and correct measurement. J Hum Hypertens. 2015;29:351–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Haapanen N, Miilunpalo S, Vuori I, Oja P, Pasanen M. Association of leisure time physical activity with the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged men and women. Int J Epidemiol. 1997;26:739–47.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Paffenbarger RS Jr., Wing AL, Hyde RT, Jung DL. Physical activity and incidence of hypertension in college alumni. Am J Epidemiol. 1983;117:245–57.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Sawada S, Tanaka H, Funakoshi M, Shindo M, Kono S, Ishiko T. Five year prospective study on blood pressure and maximal oxygen uptake. Clin Exp Pharmcol Physiol. 1993;20:483–7.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Whelton SP, Chin A, Xin X, He J. Effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:493–503.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Fagard RH. Exercise characteristics and the blood pressure response to dynamic physical training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:S484–492. discussionS493-484

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Halbert JA, Silagy CA, Finucane P, Withers RT, Hamdorf PA, Andrews GR. The effectiveness of exercise training in lowering blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of 4 weeks or longer. J Hum Hypertens. 1997;11:641–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension 2005;46:667–75.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Pescatello LS, Franklin BA, Fagard R, Farquhar WB, Kelley GA, Ray CA. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:533–53.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Kokkinos PF, Narayan P, Colleran JA, Pittaras A, Notargiacomo A, Reda D, et al. Effects of regular exercise on blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in African-American men with severe hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1462–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Ishikawa-Takata K, Ohta T, Tanaka H. How much exercise is required to reduce blood pressure in essential hypertensives: a dose-response study. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16:629–33.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH. Effect of resistance training on resting blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. 2005;23:251–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30:975–91.

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007;116:1081–93.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Kelley GA, Kelley KS. Progressive resistance exercise and resting blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension. 2000;35:838–43.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, Cifkova R, Fagard R, Germano G, et al. 2007 guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens. 2007;25:1105–87.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Cornelissen VA, Smart NA. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e004473.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Inder JD, Carlson DJ, Dieberg G, McFarlane JR, Hess NC, Smart NA. Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management: a systematic review and meta-analysis to optimize benefit. Hypertens Res. 2016;39:88–94.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Carlson DJ, Dieberg G, Hess NC, Millar PJ, Smart NA. Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89:327–34.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Wong GW, Wright JM. Blood pressure lowering efficacy of nonselective beta-blockers for primary hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2:CD007452.

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Weston KS, Wisloff U, Coombes JS. High-intensity interval training in patients with lifestyle-induced cardiometabolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:1227–34.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Karlsen T, Aamot IL, Haykowsky M, Rognmo O. High intensity interval training for maximizing health outcomes. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;60:67–77.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Bartlett JD, Close GL, MacLaren DP, Gregson W, Drust B, Morton JP. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence. J Sports Sci. 2011;29:547–53.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Mezzani A, Hamm LF, Jones AM, McBride PE, Moholdt T, Stone JA, et al. Aerobic exercise intensity assessment and prescription in cardiac rehabilitation: a joint position statement of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013;20:442–67.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Costa EC, Hay JL, Kehler DS, Boreskie KF, Arora RC, Umpierre D, et al. Effects of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on blood pressure in adults with pre- to established hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Sports Med. 2018;48:2127–42.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Wen CP, Wai JP, Tsai MK, Yang YC, Cheng TY, Lee MC, et al. Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2011;378:1244–53.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Thompson PD, Franklin BA, Balady GJ, Blair SN, Corrado D, Estes NA 3rd, et al. Exercise and acute cardiovascular events placing the risks into perspective: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 2007;115:2358–68.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    McLenachan JM, Henderson E, Morris KI, Dargie HJ. Ventricular arrhythmias in patients with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:787–92.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Smart N, Marwick TH. Exercise training for patients with heart failure: a systematic review of factors that improve mortality and morbidity. Am J Med. 2004;116:693–706.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Fletcher GF, Balady GJ, Amsterdam EA, Chaitman B, Eckel R, Fleg J, et al. Exercise standards for testing and training: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001;104:1694–740.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand. Physical activity, physical fitness, and hypertension. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25:i–x.

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Derman WE, Sims R, Noakes TD. The effects of antihypertensive medications on the physiological response to maximal exercise testing. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1992;19 Suppl 5:S122–127.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Pescatello LS, Mack GW, Leach CN Jr., Nadel ER. Thermoregulation in mildly hypertensive men during beta-adrenergic blockade. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22:222–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Schultz MG, Otahal P, Picone DS, Sharman JE. Clinical relevance of exaggerated exercise blood pressure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66:1843–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Schultz MG, Otahal P, Cleland VJ, Blizzard L, Marwick TH, Sharman JE. Exercise-induced hypertension, cardiovascular events, and mortality in patients undergoing exercise stress testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens. 2013;26:357–66.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Barlow PA, Otahal P, Schultz MG, Shing CM, Sharman JE. Low exercise blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. 2014;237:13–22.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Sharman JE, Cockcroft JR, Coombes JS. Cardiovascular implications of exposure to traffic air pollution during exercise. Q J Med. 2004;97:1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Sinharay R, Gong J, Barratt B, Ohman-Strickland P, Ernst S, Kelly FJ, et al. Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to walking down a traffic-polluted road compared with walking in a traffic-free area in participants aged 60 years and older with chronic lung or heart disease and age-matched healthy controls: a randomised, crossover study. Lancet. 2018;391:339–49.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Norton K, Norton L, Sadgrove D. Position statement on physical activity and exercise intensity terminology. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13:496–502.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Neil A. Smart.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

NB: This is an update to the 2009 Position Stand originally published in the Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport (2009) 12, 252–257

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sharman, J.E., Smart, N.A., Coombes, J.S. et al. Exercise and sport science australia position stand update on exercise and hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 33, 837–843 (2019).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links