Enright PL, Newman AB, Wahl PW, Manolio TA, Haponik EF, Boyle PJ. Prevalence and correlates of snoring and observed apneas in 5,201 older adults. Sleep. 1996;19:531–8.
Hori M, Kitamura A, Kiyama M, Imano H, Yamagishi K, Cui R, et al. Fifty-year time trends in blood pressures, body mass index and their relations in a Japanese Community: The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS). J Atheroscler Thromb. 2017;24:518–29.
Ohira T, Iso H. Cardiovascular disease epidemiology in Asia: an overview. Circ J. 2013;77:1646–52.
Li D, Liu D, Wang X, He D. Self-reported habitual snoring and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Atherosclerosis. 2014;235:189–95.
Thomas GN, Jiang CQ, Lao XQ, McGhee SM, Zhang WS, Schooling CM, et al. Snoring and vascular risk factors and disease in a low-risk Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Sleep. 2006;29:896–900.
Kim J, Yi H, Shin KR, Kim JH, Jung KH, Shin C. Snoring as an independent risk factor for hypertension in the nonobese population: the Korean Health and Genome Study. Am J Hypertens. 2007;20:819–24.
Corbo GM, Forastiere F, Agabiti N, Baldacci S, Farchi S, Pistelli R, et al. Rhinitis and snoring as risk factors for hypertension in post-menupausal women. Respir Med. 2006;100:1368–73.
Jennum P, Hein HO, Suadicani P, Gyntelberg F. Cardiovascular risk factors in snorers. a cross-sectional study of 3,323 men aged 54 to 74 years: the Copenhagen Male Study. Chest. 1992;102:1371–6.
Hu FB, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Speizer FE, Rosner B, et al. Prospective study of snoring and risk of hypertension in women. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:806–16.
OECD (2014) ObesityUpdate (Accessed April 14, 2017, at http://www.oecd.org/health/Obesity-Update-2014.pdf).
Tanno S, Tanigawa T, Maruyama K, Eguchi E, Abe T, Saito I. Sleep-related intermittent hypoxia is associated with decreased psychomotor vigilance in Japanese community residents. Sleep Med. 2017;29:7–12.
Saito I, Hitsumoto S, Maruyama K, Eguchi E, Kato T, Okamoto A, et al. Impact of heart rate variability on C-reactive protein concentrations in Japanese adult nonsmokers: the Toon Health Study. Atherosclerosis. 2016;244:79–85.
Nikolaus C. Using the Berlin Questionnaire to identify patients at risk for the sleep apnea syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:485–91.
WHO. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 894. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.
Ishikawa-Takata K, Naito Y, Tanaka S, Ebine N, Tabata I. Use of doubly labeled water to validate a physical activity questionnaire developed for the Japanese population. J Epidemiol. 2011;21:114–21.
Young T, Shahar E, Nieto FJ, Redline S, Newman AB, Gottlieb DJ, et al. Predictors of sleep-disordered breathing in community-dwelling adults: the Sleep Heart Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:893–900.
Satoh A, Arima H, Ohkubo T, Nishi N, Okuda N, Ae R, et al. Associations of socioeconomic status with prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in a general Japanese population: NIPPON DATA2010. J Hypertens. 2017;35:401–8.
Molloy GJ, Stamatakis E, Randall G, Hamer M. Marital status, gender and cardiovascular mortality: behavioural, psychological distress and metabolic explanations. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69:223–8.
Somers VK, Dyken ME, Clary MP, Abboud FM. Sympathetic neural mechanisms in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Invest. 1995;96:1897–904.
Carlson JT, Hender J, Elam M, Ejnell H, Sellgren J, Wallin BG. Augmentated resting sympathetic activity in awake patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 1993;103:1763–8.
Kraiczi H, Hedner J, Peker Y, Carlson J. Increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea. J Appl Physiol. 2000;89:493–8.
Schulz R, Mahmoudi S, Hattar K, Sibelius U, Olschewski H, Mayer K, et al. Enhanced release of superoxide from polymorphonuclear neutrophils in obstructive sleep apnea. Impact of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:566–70.
Rangemark C, Hedner JA, Carlson JT, Gleerup G, Winter K. Platelet function and fibrinolytic activity in hypertensive and normotensive sleep apnea patients. Sleep. 1995;18:188–94.
Simon DI, Simon NM. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1: a novel therapeutic target for hypertension? Circulation. 2013;128:2286–8.
Gozal D, Kheirandish L. Oxidant stress and inflammation in the snoring child: confluent pathways to upper airway pathogenesis and end-organ morbidity. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10:83–96.
Puig F, Rico F, Almendros I, Montserrat JM, Navajas D, Farre R. Vibration enhances interleukin-8 release in a cell model of snoringinduced airway inflammation. Sleep. 2005;28:1312–6.
Tanigawa T, Tachibana N, Yamagishi K, Muraki I, Kudo M, Ohira T, et al. Relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and blood pressure levels in community-based samples of Japanese men. Hypertens Res. 2004;27:479–84.
Cui R, Tanigawa T, Sakurai S, Yamagishi K, Imano H, Ohira T, et al. Associations of sleep-disordered breathing with excessive daytime sleepiness and blood pressure in Japanese women. Hypertens Res. 2008;31:501–6.
Nagayoshi M1, Tanigawa T, Yamagishi K, Sakurai S, Kitamura A, Kiyama M. etc. Self-reported snoring frequency and incidence of cardiovascular disease: the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS). J Epidemiol. 2012;22:295–301.