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Impact of long-term potassium supplementation on thiazide diuretic-induced abnormalities of glucose and uric acid metabolisms

Abstract

Treatment of hypertension with thiazide diuretics may trigger hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia. Some studies suggest simultaneous potassium supplementation in hypertensive patients using thiazide diuretics. However, few clinical studies have reported the impact of long-term potassium supplementation on thiazide diuretic-induced abnormalities in blood glucose and uric acid (UA) metabolisms. One hundred hypertensive patients meeting the inclusion criteria were equally randomized to two groups: IND group receiving indapamide (1.25–2.5 mg daily) alone, and IND/KCI group receiving IND (1.25–2.5 mg daily) plus potassium chloride (40 mmol daily), both for 24 weeks. At the end of 24-week follow-up, serum K+ level in IND group decreased from 4.27 ± 0.28 to 3.98 ± 0.46 mmol/L (P < 0.001), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and UA increased from 5.11 ± 0.52 to 5.31 ± 0.57 mmol/L (P < 0.05), and from 0.404 ± 0.078 to 0.433 ± 0.072 mmol/L (P < 0.05), respectively. Serum K+ level in IND/KCl group decreased from 4.27 ± 0.36 to 3.89 ± 0.28 mmol/L (P < 0.001), and FPB and UA increased from 5.10 ± 0.41 to 5.35 ± 0.55 mmol/L (P < 0.01), and from 0.391 ± 0.073 to 0.457 ± 0.128 mmol/L (P < 0.001), respectively. The difference value between the serum K+ level and FPG before and after treatment was not statistically significant between the two groups. However, the difference value in UA in IND/KCl group was significantly higher than that in IND group (0.066 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.041–0.090)  mmol/L vs. 0.029 (95% CI: 0.006–0.058) mmol/L, P < 0.05). The results showed that long-term routine potassium supplementation could not prevent or attenuate thiazide diuretic-induced abnormalities of glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients; rather, it may aggravate the UA metabolic abnormality.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Lou-man Zhang and Tian-tian Zhu for statistical analysis support.

Funding

This study was supported by Changhai Hospital Development Fund (2014012).

Author information

Correspondence to Jian-liang Zhang or Ke Wang.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Electronic supplementary material

The difference value between the outcome at 12 and 24 weeks after treatment and the baseline [means (95% confidence interval)]

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