Epidemiology studies relying on one address to assign exposures over time share common methodological limitations in failing to account for mobility that may introduce potential exposure misclassification. Using Texas birth certificate and cancer registry data, we identified predictors of residential mobility among mothers of children diagnosed with early childhood leukemia in Texas from 1995 to 2011. We used U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Air Toxics Assessment data to estimate residential levels of benzene and 1,3-butadiene based on addresses at birth and diagnosis and applied mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression models to evaluate differences in exposure classification between the two time periods. In total, 55% of children moved from time of birth to diagnosis, although they generally did not move far (median distance moved was 8 km). Predictors of mobility, at delivery, included younger age, being unmarried and living in neighborhoods with high benzene levels, and, at diagnosis, increasing child’s age and living in neighborhoods with low poverty rates. We observed that the odds of being assigned to a higher exposure quartile at diagnosis relative to the time of birth decreased by 31% for 1,3-butadiene (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.59–0.82) and by 12% for benzene (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.75, 1.05).
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $49.83 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Amigou A, Sermage-Faure C, Orsi L, Leverger G, Baruchel A, Bertrand Y, et al. Road traffic and childhood leukemia: the ESCALE study (SFCE). Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:566–72.
Brosselin P, Rudant J, Orsi L, Leverger G, Baruchel A, Bertrand Y, et al. Acute childhood leukaemia and residence next to petrol stations and automotive repair garages: the ESCALE study (SFCE). Occup Environ Med. 2009;66:598–606.
Crosignani P, Tittarelli A, Borgini A, Codazzi T, Rovelli A, Porro E, et al. Childhood leukemia and road traffic: population-based case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2004;108:596–9.
Reynolds P, Von Behren J, Gunier RB, Goldberg DE, Hertz A, Smith DF. Childhood cancer incidence rates and hazardous air pollutants in California: an exploratory analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:663–8.
Vinceti M, Rothman KJ, Crespi CM, Sterni A, Cherubini A, Guerra L, et al. Leukemia risk in children exposed to benzene and PM10 from vehicular traffic: a case-control study in an Italian population. Eur J Epidemiol. 2012;27:781–90.
Whitworth KW, Symanski E, Coker AL. Childhood lymphohematopoietic cancer incidence and hazardous air pollutants in southeast Texas, 1995-2004. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:1576–80.
Eden T. Aetiology of childhood leukaemia. Cancer Treat Rev. 2010;36:286–97.
Greaves MF, Wiemels J. Origins of chromosome translocations in childhood leukaemia. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003;3:639–49.
Lewtas J. Human exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants. Toxicol Lett. 1994;72:163–9.
Lupo PJ, Symanski E, Chan W, Mitchell LE, Waller DK, Canfield MA, et al. Differences in exposure assignment between conception and delivery: the impact of maternal mobility. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2010;24:200–8.
Chen L, Bell EM, Caton AR, Druschel CM, Lin S. Residential mobility during pregnancy and the potential for ambient air pollution exposure misclassification. Environ Res. 2010;110:162–8.
Hodgson S, Lurz PW, Shirley MD, Bythell M, Rankin J. Exposure misclassification due to residential mobility during pregnancy. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2015;218:414–21.
Danysh HE, Mitchell LE, Zhang K, Scheurer ME, Lupo PJ.Differences in environmental exposure assignment due to residential mobility among children with a central nervous system tumor: Texas, 1995-2009. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2017;27:41–6.
Texas Cancer Registry Cancer Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch Texas Department of State Health Services. Geocoding methodology used by Texas Cancer Registry. Personal communication [Email] to PG Tee Lewis. 2018.
Zdeb M Driving Distances and Times Using SAS® and Google Maps, 2010. Report no.: Paper 050-2010. Available from: http://support.sas.com/resources/papers/proceedings10/050-2010.pdf. Accessed 8 May 2014.
Cayo MR, Talbot TO. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses. Int J Health Geogr. 2003;2:10.
EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). National Air Toxics Assessments. Available from: https://www.epa.gov/national-air-toxics-assessment. Last Updated 14 November 2017, Accessed 22 May 2013.
EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). The ASPEN Model. EPA Technology Transfer Network, Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/nata1999/aspen99.html. Last Updated Archived, Accessed 2013.
Symanski E, Tee Lewis PG, Chen TY, Chan W, Lai D, Ma X. Air toxics and early childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia in Texas, a population based case control study. Environ Health. 2016;15:70.
EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). National Air Toxics Assessments (NATA). Environmental Protection Agency, Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/natamain/index.html. Last Updated, Accessed 2013.
Census Bureau (US). Census 2000 Summary File 1 and 3 Tables P2 and P5 using American Fact Finder. http://factfinder2.census.gov/ Accessed 17 November 2015.
U.S. Census Bureau. Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000. Census 2000 Summary File 3, All Census Tracts within Texas, Table DP-3 using American Fact Finder. http://factfinder2.census.gov/ Accessed 17 November 2015.
Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S Applied Logistic Regression. New York: Wiley-Interscience; 2000.
Sheu CF. Fitting mixed-effects models for repeated ordinal outcomes with the NLMIXED procedure. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput. 2002;34:151–7.
Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL. Modern Epidemiology.. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.
Nakagawa S, Schielzeth H. A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models. Methods Ecol Evol. 2013;4:133–42.
Benetsky M, Burd C, Rapino M Young Adult Migration: 2007–9 to 2010–2. U.S. Washington, DC: Census Bureau; 2015. Report no.: American Community Survey Reports ACS-31. Available from: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2015/acs/acs-31.pdf. Accessed 29 August 2016.
Urayama KY, Von Behren J, Reynolds P, Hertz A, Does M, Buffler PA. Factors associated with residential mobility in children with leukemia: implications for assigning exposures. Ann Epidemiol. 2009;19:834–40.
Pennington AF, Strickland MJ, Klein M, Zhai X, Russell AG, Hansen C. et al. Measurement error in mobile source air pollution exposure estimates due to residential mobility during pregnancy.J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2017;27:513–20.
Reynolds P, Elkin E, Scalf R, Von Behren J, Neutra RR. A case-control pilot study of traffic exposures and early childhood leukemia using a geographic information system. Bioelectromagnetics. 2001;Suppl 5:S58–68.
Reynolds P, Von Behren J, Gunier RB, Goldberg DE, Hertz A. Residential exposure to traffic in California and childhood cancer. Epidemiology. 2004;15:6–12.
Census Bureau (US). Geographical Mobility: 2014–5. Date published November 2015. https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2015/demo/geographic-mobility/cps-2015.html Accessed November 2016.
Geronimus AT, Bound J, Ro A. Residential mobility across local areas in the United States and the geographic distribution of the healthy population. Demography. 2014;51:777–809.
Tunstall H, Pickett K, Johnsen S. Residential mobility in the UK during pregnancy and infancy: are pregnant women, new mothers and infants ‘unhealthy migrants’? Soc Sci Med. 2010;71:786–98.
Canfield MA, Ramadhani TA, Langlois PH, Waller DK. Residential mobility patterns and exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies of birth defects. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2006;16:538–43.
Hodgson S, Shirley M, Bythell M, Rankin J. Residential mobility during pregnancy in the north of England. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009;9:52.
Fell DB, Dodds L, King WD. Residential mobility during pregnancy. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2004;18:408–14.
Miller A, Siffel C, Correa A. Residential mobility during pregnancy: patterns and correlates. Matern Child Health J. 2010;14:625–34.
Saadeh FB, Clark MA, Rogers ML, Linkletter CD, Phipps MG, Padbury JF, et al. Pregnant and moving: understanding residential mobility during pregnancy and in the first year of life using a prospective birth cohort. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17:330–43.
Shaw GM, Malcoe LH. Residential mobility during pregnancy for mothers of infants with or without congenital cardiac anomalies: a reprint. Arch Environ Health. 1992;47:236–8.
Ghosh JK, Heck JE, Cockburn M, Su J, Jerrett M, Ritz B. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178:1233–9.
Heck JE, Park AS, Qiu J, Cockburn M, Ritz B. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014;217:662–8.
Deziel NC, Rull RP, Colt JS, Reynolds P, Whitehead TP, Gunier RB, et al. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in residential dust and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Environ Res. 2014;133:388–95.
Knudson AG. Two genetic hits (more or less) to cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2001;1:157–62.
Madsen C, Gehring U, Walker SE, Brunekreef B, Stigum H, Naess O, et al. Ambient air pollution exposure, residential mobility and term birth weight in Oslo, Norway. Environ Res. 2010;110:363–71.
Brokamp C, LeMasters GK, Ryan PH. Residential mobility impacts exposure assessment and community socioeconomic characteristics in longitudinal epidemiology studies. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2016;26:428–34.
Oudin A, Forsberg B, Stromgren M, Beelen R, Modig L. Impact of residential mobility on exposure assessment in longitudinal air pollution studies: a sensitivity analysis within the ESCAPE project. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:125818.
Visser O, van Wijnen JH, van Leeuwen FE. Residential traffic density and cancer incidence in Amsterdam, 1989–97. Cancer causes & Control: CCC. 2004;15:331–9.
Lane KJ, Kangsen Scammell M, Levy JI, Fuller CH, Parambi R, Zamore W, et al. Positional error and time-activity patterns in near-highway proximity studies: an exposure misclassification analysis. Environ Health. 2013;12:75–75.
EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Comparison of ASPEN Modeling System Results to Monitored Concentrations. EPA Technology Transfer Network, Technology Transfer Network 1996 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment. Available from: https://archive.epa.gov/airtoxics/nata/web/html/mtom_pre.html. Last Updated 21 February 2016, Accessed March 23 2016.
EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Comparison of 1999 Model-Predicted Concentrations to Monitored Data. EPA Technology Transfer Network, Technology Transfer Network 1999 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment. Available from: https://archive.epa.gov/airtoxics/nata1999/web/html/99compare.html. Last Updated 21 February 2016, Accessed 23 March 2016.
EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Comparison of 2002 Model-Predicted Concentrations to Monitored Data. EPA Technology Transfer Network, Technology Transfer Network 2002 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment. Available from: https://archive.epa.gov/nata2002/web/html/compare.html. Last Updated 21 February 2016, Accessed 21 March 2016.
Lupo PJ, Symanski E. A comparative analysis of modeled and monitored ambient hazardous air pollutants in Texas: a novel approach using concordance correlation. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 1995;2009:1278–86.
Bell ML, Belanger K. Review of research on residential mobility during pregnancy: consequences for assessment of prenatal environmental exposures. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012;22:429–38.
This study was supported by a grant from the National Cancer Institute (grant number, 5R03CA162172). Funding for this study was provided by the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute (5R03CA162172). With IRB approvals from the Texas Department of State Health Services and University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, data were provided by the Texas Cancer Registry, Birth Defects Registry, and Vital Statistics.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Tee Lewis, P.G., Chen, TY., Chan, W. et al. Predictors of residential mobility and its impact on air pollution exposure among children diagnosed with early childhood leukemia. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 29, 510–519 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-019-0126-5
- Air Pollution
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2019)
Association between Outdoor Air Pollution and Childhood Leukemia: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis
Environmental Health Perspectives (2019)