Table 4 Mutually adjusted associations between participant behavior and serum concentration of six PFASs (n = 178) with tests for statistical interaction by race for predictors with significant interactions in the unadjusted models

From: Serum concentrations of PFASs and exposure-related behaviors in African American and non-Hispanic white women

Predictor Percent change in PFAS concentration (95 percent confidence interval)
 Response levels PFOA PFNA PFDeA PFHxS PFOS Me-PFOSA-AcOH
 Intercept 95.8 (43, 168) −26.7 (−44.1, −3.9) −78.4 (−84.7, −69.6) −1.3 (−30.1, 39.5) 307.1 (187, 477.5) −84.1 (−89.5, −76)
Glide floss
  Never ref ref ref ref ref ref
  Ever 4.8 (−13.4, 26.7) 7 (−9.2, 26.1) 1 (−17.5, 23.5) 24.9 (0.2, 55.7)* 8.7 (−12, 34.4) 12.7 (−14.2, 48)
Non-stick cookware
  Never ref ref ref ref ref ref
  Ever 4.3 (−16.7, 30.6) −2.7 (−19.9, 18.1) −18 (−35.4, 4) −14.2 (−33.9, 11.4) −11 (−30.7, 14.3) 5.1 (−23.8, 45)
Microwave popcorn
  Never ref ref ref ref ref ref
  Ever 18.7 (−5.7, 49.4) 8.8 (−10.8, 32.6) 24 (−2.8, 58.2) 6.1 (−18.7, 38.6) 26.3 (−2.3, 63.1) −12.4 (−37, 22)
City served by a PFAS-contaminated water supply
  No ref ref ref ref ref ref
  Yes 100.3 (18.2, 239.5)* 83.6 (16.6, 189.2)** 67.9 (−4, 193.6) 103.5 (10.3, 275.2)* 62.8 (−9.5, 192.7) 52.4 (−28.3, 224)
Race
  Non-Hispanic white ref ref ref ref ref ref
  African American −52.6 (−65.8, −34.4)*** −21.4 (−40.6, 4) −21.6 (−46.7, 15.4) −18.9 (−39.5, 8.9) −26.1 (−48.6, 6.2) 3.2 (−21.4, 35.6)
Education (Bachelor’s degree or more)
  No ref ref ref ref ref ref
  Yes*Race *
   Yes (NHW) −7.5 (−24, 12.5) −11.2 (−25, 5.1) 12.9 (−8.2, 39) 40.4 (3.5, 90.6)* 11.7 (−10.2, 38.9) 7 (−19.3, 41.7)
   Yes (AA)     −13.8 (−37.8, 19.5)   
Stain-resistant carpet and furniture
  None ref ref ref ref ref ref
  One or more*Race NS
   ≥One (NHW) 2.8 (−15.3, 24.7) 18.7 (0.5, 40.2)* 39.6 (5.9, 84.2)* −12.3 (−29.8, 9.7) 2.5 (−17.4, 27.1) 5.8 (−19.7, 39.5)
   ≥One (AA)    2.1 (−24.4, 37.8)    
Coated cardboard containers
  Never ref ref ref ref ref ref
  Low*Race NS NS NS NS
   Low (NHW) 2.9 (−22.1, 35.8) 7.7 (−15.2, 36.8) −1.6 (−26.7, 32) 7.9 (−14.6, 36.4) 21.9 (−10.5, 66.1) 22.1 (−8.7, 63.2)
   Low (AA) 45.4 (7.8, 96)* 18.4 (−8.5, 53.1) 26.1 (−8.2, 73.2)   38.3 (−0.8, 92.8)  
  High*Race ** ** ** *
   High (NHW) −36.9 (−63.8, 10) −12.4 (−45.7, 41.3) −26.7 (−59.3, 32.1) 10 (−25.4, 62.3) −23.2 (−58.6, 42.6) 40.7 (−13, 127.6)
   High (AA) 99.9 (31.1, 204.8)** 95.9 (36.3, 181.7)*** 124.4 (43.2, 251.5)***   89.6 (18.6, 203.1)**  
 Model R2 0.21 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.12 0.04
  1. NS, p > 0.05; *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001
  2. For tests of interaction, we report the overall significance of the interaction term and the magnitude and significance of the race-specific marginal associations. Interactions not included in a model are indicated by dash and the non-conditional marginal association is reported