Table 1 PFOA drinking water guideline levels

From: Guideline levels for PFOA and PFOS in drinking water: the role of scientific uncertainty, risk assessment decisions, and social factors

  Advisory level Critical effect study Toxicological endpoint Reference dose Uncertainty factors Target population Water ingestion rate RSC
U.S. EPAa, 2016, Health Advisory Level [35] 70 ng/L Lau et al. [49] Developmental 20 ng/kg- day Total = 300 Intraspecies 10, Interspecies 3, LOAEL to NOAEL 10 Lactating woman 0.054 L/kg-day 20%
Alaska DECb, 2016, Groundwater cleanup level [89] 400 ng/L Lau et al. [49] Developmental 20 ng/kg- day Total = 300 Intraspecies 10, Interspecies 3, LOAEL to NOAEL 10 Child (0–6 years) residential 0.78 L/day, 15 kg body weight (b.w.) 100%
Maine DEPb, 2016, Remedial action guideline [90, 91] 130 ng/L Six studies combined [49, 92,93,94] Liver 6 ng/kg-day Total = 300 Intraspecies 10, Interspecies 3, Database 10 Adult 2 L/day, 70 kg b.w. 60%
Minnesota DOH, 2017, Non-cancer health-based level [95] 35 ng/L Lau et al. [49] Developmental 18 ng/kg- day Total = 300 Intraspecies 10, Interspecies 3, LOAEL to NOAEL 3, Database 3 Infant exposure via breastmilk for 1 year, from mother chronically exposed via drinking water Derived from internal serum concentrations based on 95% water intake rates and upper percentile breastmilk intake rates 50%
New Jersey DEP, 2017, Maximum contaminant level (recommended) [45] 14 ng/L Loveless et al. [96] Liver 2 ng/kg-day Total = 300 Intraspecies = 10, Interspecies 3, Database 10 Adult 2 L/day, 70 kg b.w. 20%
North Carolina DENRb, 2012, Interim maximum allowable concentration (proposed) [54] 1000 ng/L Butenhoff et al. [97] Liver N/A Total = 30 Intraspecies 10, Interspecies 3 Adult 2 L/day, 70 kg b.w. 20%
Texas CEQb, 2017, Protective concentration level [81] 290 ng/L Macon et al. [50] Mammary Gland 15 ng/kg- day Total = 300 Intraspecies 10, LOAEL to NOAEL 30 Child (0–6 years) residential 0.64 L/day, 15 kg b.w. 100%
Vermonta DEC/DOH, 2016, Primary groundwater enforcement standard [98] 20 ng/L Lau et al. [49] Developmental 20 ng/kg- day Total = 300 Intraspecies 10, Interspecies 3, LOAEL to NOAEL 10 Infant (0–1 year) 0.175 L/kg-day 20%
  1. Note: Adapted from ITRC [8]
  2. CEQ Commission on Environmental Quality, DEC Department of Environmental Conservation, DENR Department of Environment and Natural Resources (note that NC DENR is now NC DEQ), DEP Department of Environmental Protection, DEQ Department of Environmental Quality, DOH Department of Health, RSC Relative Source Contribution
  3. aApplies to PFOA and PFOS individually, as well as the sum of PFOA and PFOS
  4. bAlaska, Maine, North Carolina, and Texas follow the EPA’s HA for public and/or private drinking water