Bone is one of the target organs for cadmium toxicity. However, few studies have shown the association between cumulative cadmium intake and prevalence of osteoporosis and bone fracture. In the present study, we evaluated the association between cumulative cadmium intake and osteoporosis and risk of fracture in a Chinese population. A total of 790 subjects (488 women and 302 men) living in a control area and two cadmium-polluted areas were included. The cumulative cadmium intake was estimated by a food survey. The bone mineral density was determined by using single-photon absorptiometry. The cumulative cadmium intakes were 0.48, 2.14, and 11.00 g for men, and 0.42, 2.11, and 11.12 g in women in control, and moderately and heavily polluted areas, respectively. In women, the odds ratios (ORs) of subjects with a cadmium intake between 2.21 and 10.63 g and >10.63 g were 1.30 (95% CI: 0.58–2.94) and 2.36 (95% CI: 1.14–5.16), compared with those with a cadmium intake < 0.58 g after adjusting to the confounders for osteoporosis. The ORs of subjects with a cadmium intake >10.63 g were 2.34 (95% CI: 1.23–4.38) for all of the women and 2.62 (95% CI: 1.02–5.58) in women ≥ 60 years old, compared with those with a cadmium intake <10.63 g after adjusting to the confounders for bone fractures. In men, similar trends were observed, but no statistical significance was found. In addition, those subjects with renal tubular dysfunction showed high risk of bone fracture. Our results indicate that a high level of cumulative cadmium intake is associated with an increased rate of osteoporosis and fractures among women.
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This study was funded by the National Natural Science foundation of China (No. 81773460, 81102148), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (no. BK20161609), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (14DZ2260200, the project of Shanghai Key Laboratory of Kidney and Blood Purification).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Chen, X., Wang, Z., Zhu, G. et al. The association between cumulative cadmium intake and osteoporosis and risk of fracture in a Chinese population. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 29, 435–443 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-018-0057-6
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