Fig. 4 | International Journal of Oral Science

Fig. 4

From: The cytokine network involved in the host immune response to periodontitis

Fig. 4

Cytokines that are closely related to certain groups of T lymphocytes. Most of the remaining cytokines are closely related to the differentiation and/or effects of specific immune cell subsets. Under stimulation by certain inflammatory cytokines, naive CD4+ T cells differentiate towards multiple directions, including Th1 (IL-12) and Treg (IL-2 and TGF-β) cells, which mainly have protective effects, and Th17 (IL-23) and Th2 (IL-4) cells, which mainly have pleiotropic effects. The signalling pathways downstream of IL-17 (secreted by Th17 cells) and IL-10 (secreted by Treg cells) are specific and of special significance to the periodontal host immune response, as shown in this figure

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