Obesity is a multifactorial disease resulting in excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Over the last decade, growing evidence has identified the gut microbiota as a potential factor in the pathophysiology of both obesity and the related metabolic disorders. The gut microbiota is known to protect gastrointestinal mucosa permeability and to regulate the fermentation and absorption of dietary polysaccharides, perhaps explaining its importance in the regulation of fat accumulation and the resultant obesity. The proposed mechanisms by which the gut microbiota could contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and the related metabolic diseases include: (a) a high abundance of bacteria that ferment carbohydrates, leading to increased rates of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) biosynthesis, providing an extra source of energy for the host, that is eventually stored as lipids or glucose; (b) increased intestinal permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), resulting in elevated systemic LPS levels that aggravate low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance; (c) increased activity of the gut endocannabinoid system. Fecal transplantation studies in germ-free mice have provided crucial insights into the potential causative role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity and obesity-related disorders. Diet +/− bariatric surgery have been reported to modulate the gut microbiota, leading to lean host phenotype body composition. This review aims to report clinical evidence for a link of the gut microbiota with human obesity and obesity-related diseases, to provide molecular insights into these associations, and to address the effect of diet and bariatric surgery on the gut microbiota, including colonic microbiota, as a potential mechanism for promoting weight loss.
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Obesity Programs of nutrition, Education, Research and Assessment (OPERA) group members served as collaborators and approved the final version of the paper: Annamaria Colao, Antonio Aversa, Barbara Altieri, Luigi Angrisani, Giuseppe Annunziata, Rocco Barazzoni, Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Bellastella, Bernadette Biondi, Elena Cantone, Brunella Capaldo, Sara Cassarano, Rosario Cuomo, Luigi Di Luigi, Andrea Di Nisio, Carla Di Somma, Ludovico Docimo, Katherine Esposito, Carlo Foresta, Pietro Forestieri, Alessandra Gambineri, Francesco Garifalos, Cristiano Giardiello, Carla Giordano, Francesco Giorgino, Dario Giugliano, Daniela Laudisio, Davide Lauro, Andrea Lenzi, Silvia Magno, Paolo Macchia, MariaIda Maiorino, Emilio Manno, Chiara Marocco, Paolo Marzullo, Chiara Mele, Davide Menafra, Silvia Migliaccio, Marcello Monda, Filomena Morisco, Fabrizio Muratori, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Mario Musella, Gerardo Nardone, Claudia Oriolo, Uberto Pagotto, Pasquale Perrone Filardi, Luigi Piazza, Rosario Pivonello, Barbara Polese, Paolo Pozzilli, Giulia Puliani, Stefano Radellini, Gabriele Riccardi, Domenico Salvatore, Ferruccio Santini, Giovanni Sarnelli, Lorenzo Scappaticcio, Silvia Savastano, Bruno Trimarco, Dario Tuccinardi, Paola Vairano, Nunzia Verde, Roberto Vettor.
This article is published as part of a supplement funded by the Endocrinology Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University Federico II, Naples, Italy.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Members of Obesity Programs of nutrition, Education, Research and Assessment (OPERA) group are listed under Acknowledgements section.
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Muscogiuri, G., Cantone, E., Cassarano, S. et al. Gut microbiota: a new path to treat obesity. Int J Obes Supp 9, 10–19 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41367-019-0011-7
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