Diabetes is a serious health issue that causes a progressive dysregulation of carbohydrate metabolism due to insufficient insulin hormone, leading to consistently high blood glucose levels. According to the epidemiological data, the prevalence of diabetes has been increasing globally, affecting millions of individuals. It is a long-term condition that increases the risk of various diseases caused by damage to small and large blood vessels. There are two main subtypes of diabetes: type 1 and type 2, with type 2 being the most prevalent. Genetic and molecular studies have identified several genetic variants and metabolic pathways that contribute to the development and progression of diabetes. Current treatments include gene therapy, stem cell therapy, statin therapy, and other drugs. Moreover, recent advancements in therapeutics have also focused on developing novel drugs targeting these pathways, including incretin mimetics, SGLT2 inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists, which have shown promising results in improving glycemic control and reducing the risk of complications. However, these treatments are often expensive, inaccessible to patients in underdeveloped countries, and can have severe side effects. Peptides, such as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are being explored as a potential therapy for diabetes. These peptides are postprandial glucose-dependent pancreatic beta-cell insulin secretagogues and have received much attention as a possible treatment option. Despite these advances, diabetes remains a major health challenge, and further research is needed to develop effective treatments and prevent its complications. This review covers various aspects of diabetes, including epidemiology, genetic and molecular basis, and recent advancements in therapeutics including herbal and synthetic peptides.
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WC and SS are thankful to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi for providing senior research fellowship, respectively.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Ansari, M.A., Chauhan, W., Shoaib, S. et al. Emerging therapeutic options in the management of diabetes: recent trends, challenges and future directions. Int J Obes 47, 1179–1199 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-023-01369-3