The link between obesity and brain function is a fascinating but still an enigmatic topic. We evaluated the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on peripheral glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, brain glucose utilization and cognitive abilities in people with obesity.
Thirteen subjects with obesity (F/M 11/2; age 44.4 ± 9.8 years; BMI 46.1 ± 4.9 kg/m2) underwent 75-g OGTT during a [18F]FDG dynamic brain PET/CT study at baseline and 6 months after RYGB. At the same timepoints, cognitive performance was tested with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Trail making test (TMT) and Token test (TT). Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, GIP, and VIP levels were measured during OGTT. Leptin and BDNF levels were measured before glucose ingestion.
RYGB resulted in significant weight loss (from 46.1 ± 4.9 to 35.3 ± 5.0 kg/m2; p < 0.01 vs baseline). Insulin sensitivity improved (disposition index: from 1.1 ± 0.2 to 2.9 ± 1.1; p = 0.02) and cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRg) declined in various brain areas (all p ≤ 0.01). MMSE and MoCA score significantly improved (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). TMT and TT scores showed a slight improvement. A positive correlation was found between CMRg change and HOMA-IR change in the caudate nucleus (ρ = 0.65, p = 0.01). Fasting leptin decreased (from 80.4 ± 13.0 to 16.1 ± 2.4 ng/dl; p = 0.001) and correlated with CMRg change in the hippocampus (ρ = 0.50; p = 0.008). CMRg change was correlated with cognitive scores changes on the TMT and TT (all p = 0.04 or less).
Bariatric surgery improves CMRg directly related to a better cognitive testing result. This study highlights the potential pleiotropic effects of bariatric surgery.
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We thank Dr. L. Giusti for the support in performing lab tests.
This research was conducted with support from the University of Pisa (Project Code: PRA_2016_44) and from the Italian Ministry of the University (Project code 2017L8Z2EM).
The authors declare no competing interests.
Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects.
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Dardano, A., Aghakhanyan, G., Moretto, C. et al. Brain effect of bariatric surgery in people with obesity. Int J Obes 46, 1671–1677 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-022-01162-8