The study aimed at comparing how changes in the gut microbiota are associated to the beneficial effects of the most clinically efficient hypoabsorptive bariatric procedures, namely Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) and single anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S).
Diet-induced obese (DIO) male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups. In addition to the groups subjected to RYGB, BPD-DS and SADI-S, the following four control groups were included: SHAM-operated rats fed a high-fat diet (SHAM HF), SHAM fed a low-fat diet (SHAM LF), SHAM HF-pair-weighed to BPD-DS (SHAM HF-PW) and sleeve-gastrectomy (SG) rats. Body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity/resistance, and L-cell secretion were assessed. The gut microbiota (16 S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing) as well as the fecal and cæcal contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were also analyzed prior to, and after the surgeries.
The present study demonstrates the beneficial effect of RYGB, BPD-DS and SADI-S on fat mass gain and glucose metabolism in DIO rats. These benefits were proportional to the effect of the surgeries on food digestibility (BPD-DS > SADI-S > RYGB). Notably, hypoabsorptive surgeries led to consonant microbial signatures characterized by decreased abundance of the Ruminococcaceae (Oscillospira and Ruminococcus), Oscillospiraceae (Oscillibacter) and Christensenellaceae, and increased abundance of the Clostridiaceae (Clostridium), Sutterellaceae (Sutterella) and Enterobacteriaceae. The gut bacteria following hypoabsorptive surgeries were associated with higher fecal levels of propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate. Increases in the fecal SCFAs were in turn positively and strongly correlated with the levels of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and with the beneficial effects of the surgery.
The present study emphasizes the consistency with which the three major hypoabsorptive bariatric procedures RYGB, BPD-DS and SADI-S create a gut microbial environment capable of producing a SCFA profile favorable to the secretion of PYY and to beneficial metabolic effects.
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This work was supported by grants from IRSC (TB2-138776), FRQS (32559) and the Sentinel North program 3.8 of Université Laval (Canada First Research Excellence Fund).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Mukorako, P., Lemoine, N., Biertho, L. et al. Consistent gut bacterial and short-chain fatty acid signatures in hypoabsorptive bariatric surgeries correlate with metabolic benefits in rats. Int J Obes (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-021-00973-5