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CYP1A2 polymorphisms modify the association of habitual coffee consumption with appetite, macronutrient intake, and body mass index: results from an observational cohort and a cross-over randomized study




Evidence regarding the influence of coffee on appetite and weight control is equivocal and the influence of covariates, such as genetic variation in caffeine metabolism, remains unknown. Herein, we addressed the novel hypothesis that genetic variation in CYP1A2, a gene responsible for more than 95% of caffeine metabolism, differentially impacts the association of coffee consumption with appetite and BMI among individuals with different genetic predispositions to obesity.


A cross-over randomized intervention study involving 18 volunteers assessed the effects of coffee consumption on dietary intake, appetite, and levels of the appetite-controlling hormones asprosin and leptin. Data on habitual coffee intake, BMI, and perceived appetite were obtained from an observational cohort of 284 volunteers using validated questionnaires. Participants were stratified according to a validated genetic risk score (GRS) for obesity and to the −163C > A (rs762551) polymorphism of CYP1A2 as rapid (AA), intermediate (AC), or slow (CC) caffeine metabolizers.


Coffee consumption led to lower energy and dietary fat intake and circulating asprosin levels (P for interaction of rs762551 genotype*coffee consumption=0.056, 0.039, and 0.043, respectively) as compared to slow/intermediate metabolizers. High coffee consumption was more prevalent in rapid compared to slow metabolizers (P = 0.008 after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI) and was associated with lower appetite perception and lower BMI only in rapid metabolizers (P for interaction of rs762551 genotype*coffee consumption = 0.002 and 0.048, respectively). This differential association of rs762551 genotype and coffee consumption with BMI was more evident in individuals at higher genetic risk of obesity (mean adjusted difference in BMI = −5.82 kg/m2 for rapid versus slow/intermediate metabolizers who consumed more than 14 cups of coffee per week).


CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism modifies the association of habitual coffee consumption with BMI, in part by influencing appetite, energy intake and circulating levels of the orexigenic hormone asprosin. This association is more evident in subjects with high genetic predisposition to obesity. registered Clinical Trial NCT04514588.

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Fig. 1: Coffee reduces food and fat intake in rapid caffeine metabolizers.
Fig. 2: The CYP1A2 rs762551 genotype modifies the association of coffee consumption with perceived appetite.
Fig. 3: CYP1A2 rs762551 genotype impacts the association of coffee consumption with BMI.
Fig. 4: Graphical representation of the proposed interplay between genetic predisposition to obesity (Ob-GRS) and CYP1A2 rs762551 genotype in modulating the effects of coffee consumption on appetite and BMI.


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All authors contributed to the analysis or interpretation of the data and drafting the manuscript, gave final approval to submit, and accept accountability for all aspects of the work. KG and AGE contributed to the conception of the work.

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Correspondence to Kalliopi G. Gkouskou or Aristides G. Eliopoulos.

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Gkouskou, K.G., Georgiopoulos, G., Vlastos, I. et al. CYP1A2 polymorphisms modify the association of habitual coffee consumption with appetite, macronutrient intake, and body mass index: results from an observational cohort and a cross-over randomized study. Int J Obes (2021).

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