Prevention of obesity in toddlers (PROBIT): a randomised clinical trial of responsive feeding promotion from birth to 24 months

A Correction to this article was published on 12 August 2020

This article has been updated



The aims of the PROBIT trial ( NCT03131284) were to prevent overweight or obesity occurring at two years of life, and improve feeding patterns during infancy.


The trial compared 252 northern Italian newborns whose paediatricians offered their parents an educational programme from the child’s birth to the age of two years (intervention arm) with 216 newborns whose parents did not undergo the programme (control arm). This sample size was 80% powerful to detect, with a 0.05 α error, a 40% lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and a 57% lower prevalence of obesity in the intervention arm. At each well visit, the parents of the children in the intervention arm were given oral and written information about protective behaviours, with particular emphasis on responsive feeding. Overweight and obesity at two years of age were, respectively, defined as a body mass index of more than the 85th and the 95th percentile in accordance with the WHO growth charts. The sample size had 80% power to detect a 40% lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and a 57% lower prevalence of obesity in the intervention arm.


At the age of two years, the prevalence of obesity in the intervention arm was 35% lower than among the controls, but the difference was not statistically significant (8.7% vs. 13.4%; p = 0.10) There was no difference in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between the groups (26.8% vs. 28.3%; p = 0.49). At the age of three months, a higher proportion of the infants in the intervention group were fed on demand (93% vs. 80%, p < 0.001).


The PROBIT trial failed to detect a significantly lower prevalence of obesity in the intervention arm, but did improve early feeding patterns. More powerful trials and meta-analyses are required to establish whether educating newborns’ parents can decrease the prevalence of early obesity.

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  • 12 August 2020

    In the original Article, Dr. Laura Fontana���s name was missing from the author list. This has been corrected (Dr. Fontana���s name and details have been added to the HTML, PDF and XML version of this Article).


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The trial was supported by funding from the Regione Veneto (I) (grant code: CUP F69E11006100002) and from the University of Verona (I) (grant: FUR13MAFF).

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Correspondence to Laura Fontana or Claudio Maffeis.

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Morandi, A., Tommasi, M., Soffiati, F. et al. Prevention of obesity in toddlers (PROBIT): a randomised clinical trial of responsive feeding promotion from birth to 24 months. Int J Obes 43, 1961–1966 (2019).

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