Physiology

Substrate utilization and metabolic profile in response to overfeeding with a high-fat diet in South Asian and white men: a sedentary lifestyle study

Abstract

Background

For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage, a higher liver fat content and a more adverse metabolic profile than whites. South Asians may have a lower fat oxidation than whites, which could result in an unfavorable metabolic profile when exposed to increased high-fat foods consumption and decreased physical activity as in current modern lifestyle.

Objective

To determine substrate partitioning, liver fat accumulation and metabolic profile in South Asian and white men in response to overfeeding with high-fat diet under sedentary conditions in a respiration chamber.

Design

Ten South Asian men (BMI, 18–29 kg/m2) and 10 white men (BMI, 22–33 kg/m2), matched for body fat percentage, aged 20–40 year were included. A weight maintenance diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was given for 3 days. Thereafter, a baseline measurement of liver fat content (1H-MRS) and blood parameters was performed. Subsequently, subjects were overfed (150% energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60% fat, 25% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) over 3 consecutive days while staying in a respiration chamber mimicking a sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 3 × 24-h. Liver fat and blood parameters were measured again after the subjects left the chamber.

Results

The 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure did not differ between ethnicities (P = 0.30). Overfeeding increased liver fat content (P = 0.02), but the increase did not differ between ethnicities (P = 0.64). In South Asians, overfeeding tended to increase LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.08), tended to decrease glucose clearance (P = 0.06) and tended to elevate insulin response (P = 0.07) slightly more than whites.

Conclusions

Despite a similar substrate partitioning and similar accretion of liver fat, overfeeding with high-fat under sedentary conditions tended to have more adverse effects on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in South Asians.

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Acknowledgements

We gratefully thank Paul Schoffelen, Loek Wouters, Wendy Sluijsmans, Hasibe Aydeniz, and the late Jos Stegen for technical assistance and analysis. We thank Henk Schoenmakers, Roland Kersemakers, and the technicians of the MRI Unit, Academic Hospital Maastricht for technical assistance. We deeply appreciate and thank all subjects who participated in the study. SNW was supported by a fellowship from The Directorate General of Higher Education, The Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education of The Republic of Indonesia. VBS-H was supported by a veni grant (91611136) for innovative research from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. The study was approved by The Medical Ethics Committee of Maastricht University, MEC No. 10-3-013 and registered in the public trial registry www.ccmo.nl No. NL31217.068.10.

Author information

SNW: conducted the research, performed the data analysis, and wrote the paper; KRW, VBS-H, and GP: designed the study, interpreted the data, and reviewed the paper.

Correspondence to Siti N. Wulan.

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Table 1S. Day RQ, Night RQ and Delta RQ

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