Article | Published:

Exercise and dietary patterns

The influence of 15-week exercise training on dietary patterns among young adults

International Journal of Obesity (2019) | Download Citation

Abstract

Background/Objectives

Little is currently known about how exercise may influence dietary patterns and/or food preferences. The present study aimed to examine the effect of a 15-week exercise training program on overall dietary patterns among young adults.

Subjects/Methods

This study consisted of 2680 young adults drawn from the Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study. Subjects underwent 15 weeks of aerobic exercise training, and exercise duration, intensity, and dose were recorded for each session using computerized heart rate monitors. In total, 4355 dietary observations with 102 food items were collected using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire before and after exercise training (n = 2476 at baseline; n = 1859 at 15 weeks). Dietary patterns were identified using a Bayesian sparse latent factor model. Changes in dietary pattern preferences were evaluated based on the pre/post-training differences in dietary pattern scores, accounting for the effects of gender, race/ethnicity, and BMI.

Results

Within each of the seven dietary patterns identified, most dietary pattern scores were decreased following exercise training, consistent with increased voluntary regulation of food intake. A longer duration of exercise was associated with decreased preferences for the western (β: −0.0793; 95% credible interval: −0.1568, −0.0017) and snacking (β: −0.1280; 95% credible interval: −0.1877, −0.0637) patterns, while a higher intensity of exercise was linked to an increased preference for the prudent pattern (β: 0.0623; 95% credible interval: 0.0159, 0.1111). Consequently, a higher dose of exercise was related to a decreased preference for the snacking pattern (β: −0.0023; 95% credible interval: −0.0042, −0.0004) and an increased preference for the prudent pattern (β: 0.0029; 95% credible interval: 0.0009, 0.0048).

Conclusions

The 15-week exercise training appeared to motivate young adults to pursue healthier dietary preferences and to regulate their food intake.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by award number R01DK062148 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK).

Funding

This work was supported by award number R01DK062148 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK).

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA

    • Jaehyun Joo
    •  & Molly S. Bray
  2. Departments of Information, Risk, & Operations Management and Statistics & Data Science, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA

    • Sinead A. Williamson
  3. Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics and Institute for Quantitative Health Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

    • Ana I. Vazquez
  4. Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

    • Jose R. Fernandez

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Molly S. Bray.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0299-3