Steele RM, Brage S, Corder K, Wareham N, Ekelund U. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome in youth. J Appl Physiol. 2008;105:342–51.
Chinapaw M, Altenburg T, Brug J. Sedentary behaviour and health in children - evaluating the evidence. Prev Med. 2015;70:1–2.
Chinapaw MJ, Proper KI, Brug J, van Mechelen W, Singh AS. Relationship between young peoples’ sedentary behaviour and biomedical health indicators: a systematic review of prospective studies. Obes Rev. 2011;12:e621–32.
van Ekris E, Altenburg TM, Singh A, Proper K, Heymans MW, Chinapaw M. An evidence-update on the prospective relationship between childhood sedentary behaviour and biomedical health indicators: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2016;17:833–49.
Ekelund U, Luan J, Sherar LB, Esliger DW, Griew P, Cooper A. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. JAMA. 2012;307:704–12.
Brug J, van Stralen MM, Te Velde SJ, Chinapaw MJ, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Lien N, et al. Differences in weight status and energy-balance related behaviors among school children across Europe: the ENERGY-Project. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34742.
Verloigne M, Van Lippevelde W, Maes L, Yildirim M, Chinapaw M, Manios Y, et al. Self-reported TV and computer time do not represent accelerometer-derived total sedentary time in 10 to 12-year-olds. Eur J Public Health. 2013;23:30–2.
Tremblay MS, Barnes JD, Gonzalez SA, Katzmarzyk PT, Onywera VO, Reilly JJ. et al. GlobalMatrix 2.0: report card grades on the physical activity of children and youth comparing 38 countries. J Phys Act Health. 2016;13(11Suppl 2):S343–66.
Jago R, Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Thompson D, Greaves KA. BMI from 3-6 y of age is predicted by TV viewing and physical activity, not diet. Int J Obes. 2005;29:557–64.
Basterfield L, Pearce MS, Adamson AJ, Frary JK, Parkinson KN, Wright CM, et al. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in English children. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42:445–51.
Altenburg TM, Rotteveel J, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Chinapaw MJ. The effect of interrupting prolonged sitting time with short, hourly, moderate-intensity cycling bouts on cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy, young adults. J Appl Physiol. 2013;115:1751–6.
Healy G, Dunstan D, Salmon J, Cerin E, Shaw J, Zimmet P, et al. Breaks in sedentary time: beneficial associations with metabolic risk. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:661–6.
Peddie MC, Bone JL, Rehrer NJ, Skeaff CM, Gray AR, Perry TL. Breaking prolonged sitting reduces postprandial glycemia in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:358–66.
Saunders TJ, Chaput JP, Goldfield GS, Colley RC, Kenny GP, Doucet E, et al. Prolonged sitting and markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in children and youth: a randomized crossover study. Metabolism. 2013;62:1423–8.
Belcher BR, Berrigan D, Papachristopoulou A, Brady SM, Bernstein SB, Brychta RJ, et al. Effects of interrupting children’s sedentary behaviors with activity on metabolic function: a randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:3735–43.
Fletcher EA, Salmon J, McNaughton SA, Orellana L, Wadley GD, Bruce C, et al. Effects of breaking up sitting on adolescents’ postprandial glucose after consuming meals varying in energy: a cross-over randomised trial. J Sci Med Sport. 2017;21:280–5.
Carson V, Janssen I. Volume, patterns, and types of sedentary behavior and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:274.
Carson V, Stone M, Faulkner G. Patterns of sedentary behavior and weight status among children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2014;26:95–102.
Altenburg TM, de Niet M, Verloigne M, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Androutsos O, Manios Y, et al. Occurrence and duration of various operational definitions of sedentary bouts and cross-sectional associations with cardiometabolic health indicators: the ENERGY-project. Prev Med. 2015;71:101–6.
Andersen LB, Wedderkopp N, Hansen HS, Cooper AR, Froberg K. Biological cardiovascular risk factors cluster in Danish children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study. Prev Med. 2003;37:363–7.
Andersen LB, Lauersen JB, Brond JC, Anderssen SA, Sardinha LB, Steene-Johannessen J, et al. A new approach to define and diagnose cardiometabolic disorder in children. J Diabetes Res. 2015;2015:539835.
Andersen LB, Haraldsdottir J. Tracking of cardiovascular disease risk factors including maximal oxygen uptake and physical activity from late teenage to adulthood. An 8-year follow-up study. J Intern Med. 1993;234:309–15.
Wirix AJ, Nauta J, Groothoff JW, Rabelink TJ, Hirasing RA, Chinapaw MJ, et al. Is the prevalence of hypertension in overweight children overestimated? Arch Dis Child. 2016;101:998–1003.
Reinehr T, Andler W, Denzer C, Siegried W, Mayer H, Wabitsch M. Cardiovascular risk factors in overweight German children and adolescents: relation to gender, age and degree of overweight. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005;15:181–7.
Daniels SR, Arnett DK, Eckel RH, Gidding SS, Hayman LL, Kumanyika S, et al. Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Circulation. 2005;111:1999–2012.
Wedderkopp N, Jespersen E, Franz C, Klakk H, Heidemann M, Christiansen C, et al. Study protocol. The Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (The CHAMPS-study DK). BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:128.
Kinosian B, Glick H, Garland G. Cholesterol and coronary heart disease: predicting risks by levels and ratios. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:641–7.
Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985;28:412–9.
Chinapaw MJM, de Niet M, Verloigne M, de Bourdeauhuij I, Brug J, Altenburg TM. From sedentary time to sedentary patterns: accelerometer data reduction decision in youth. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e111205.
Trost SG, Loprinzi PD, Moore R, Pfeiffer KA. Comparison of accelerometer cut points for predicting activity intensity in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1360–8.
Fischer C, Yildirim M, Salmon J, Chinapaw M. Comparing different accelerometer cut points for sedentary time in children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2012;24:220–8.
Altenburg TM, Chinapaw MJ. Bouts and breaks in children’s sedentary time: currently used operational definitions and recommendations for future research. Prev Med. 2015;77:1–3.
Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG, Zderic TW. Exercise physiology versus inactivity physiology: an essential concept for understanding lipoprotein lipase regulation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2004;32:161–6.
Evenson KR, Catellier DJ, Gill K, Ondrak KS, McMurray RG. Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children. J Sports Sci. 2008;26:1557–65.
Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007;116:1081–93.
Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ. 2000;320:1240–3.
Tanner JM. Growth at Adolescence. 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1962.
Duke PM, Litt IF, Gross RT. Adolescents’ self-assessment of sexual maturation. Pediatrics. 1980;66:918–20.
Ragland DR. Dichotomizing continuous outcome variables: dependence of the magnitude of association and statistical power on the cutpoint. Epidemiology. 1992;3:434–40.
Ried-Larsen M, Grontved A, Moller NC, Larsen KT, Froberg K, Andersen LB. Associations between objectively measured physical activity intensity in childhood and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in adolescence: prospective observations from the European Youth Heart Study. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:1502–7.
Jago R, Wedderkopp N, Kristensen PL, Moller NC, Andersen LB, Cooper AR, et al. Six-year change in youth physical activity and effect on fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35:554–60.
Hjorth MF, Chaput JP, Damsgaard CT, Dalskov SM, Andersen R, Astrup A, et al. Low physical activity level and short sleep duration are associated with an increased cardiometabolic risk profile: a longitudinal study in 8–11 year old Danish children. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e104677.
Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen J, Brown WJ, Fagerland MW, Owen N, Powell KE, et al. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet. 2016;388:1302–10.
Andersen L, Hasselstrøm H, Grønfeldt V, Hansen S, Froberg K. The relationship between physical fitness and clustered risk, and tracking of clustered risk from adolescence to young adulthood: eight years follow-up in the Danish Youth and Sport Study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2004;1:6.