Episodic ataxias (EAs) are rare channelopathies characterized by recurrent ataxia and vertigo, having eight subtypes. Mutated genes were found in four of these eight subtypes (EA1, EA2, EA5, and EA6). To date, only four missense mutations in the Solute Carrier Family 1 Member 3 gene (SLC1A3) have been reported to cause EA6. SLC1A3 encodes excitatory amino-acid transporter 1, which is a trimeric transmembrane protein responsible for glutamate transport in the synaptic cleft. In this study, we found a novel missense mutation, c.383T>G (p.Met128Arg) in SLC1A3, in an EA patient by whole-exome sequencing. The modeled structural analysis suggested that p.Met128Arg may affect the hydrophobic transmembrane environment and protein function. Analysis of the pathogenicity of all mutations found in SLC1A3 to date using multiple prediction tools showed some advantage of using the Mendelian Clinically Applicable Pathogenicity (M-CAP) score. Various types of SLC1A3 variants, including nonsense mutations and indels, in the ExAC database suggest that the loss-of-function mechanism by SLC1A3 mutations is unlikely in EA6. The current mutation (p.Med128Arg) presumably has a gain-of-function effect as described in a previous report.
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We thank the individuals and their families for their participation in this study. We also thank Nobuko Watanabe and Mai Sato for technical assistance. We are also grateful to Tom Buckle, MSc, from Edanz Group (http://www.edanzediting.com/ac) for editing a draft of this manuscript. This work was supported by grants from Research on Measures for Intractable Diseases; Comprehensive Research on Disability Health and Welfare; the Strategic Research Program for Brain Science (SRPBS); the Practical Research Project for Rare/Intractable Diseases; the Initiative on Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases in Pediatrics; the Initiative on Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases in Adults from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development; a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Transcription Cycle) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan; Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A and B); Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B); Challenging Exploratory Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; the fund for Creation of Innovation Centers for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research Areas Program in the Project for Developing Innovation Systems from the Japan Science and Technology Agency; grants from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare; and the Takeda Science Foundation.
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The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Iwama, K., Iwata, A., Shiina, M. et al. A novel mutation in SLC1A3 causes episodic ataxia. J Hum Genet 63, 207–211 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s10038-017-0365-z
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