The Effect of Exocrine Pancreatic Function on Chloramphenicol Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

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ABSTRACT: The effect of exocrine pancreatic function on the pharmacokinetics of the choramphenicol oral capsule (CAP-base), chloramphenicol palmitate oral liquid (CAP-P), and chloramphenicol succinate intravenous (CAP-S) formulations was evaluated in 10 patients, aged 16–30 yr, with cystic fibrosis. Pancreatic insufficiency was assessed in each patient by measuring the absorption of p-aminobenzoic acid after oral administration of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid which requires chymotrypsin to cleave p-aminobenzoic from the parent molecule. In a controlled cross-over design, the overall biodisposition of each formulation was assessed in each patient with or without concurrent administration of oral pancreatic enzymes. The relative amounts of active chloramphenicol available in systemic circulation was CAP-base ≥ CAP-S ≥ CAP-P. Pancreatic enzyme replacement had little effect on the biodisposition parameters for the CAP-base and CAP-S formulation, but significantly increased the peak concentration and bioavailability of the CAP-P formulation. Although pancreatic enzyme replacement improved the absorption characteristics of the CAP-P formulation, absorption remained prolonged and unreliable. Serum concentration-time profiles for either CAP-base or CAP-S consistently exceeded the MIC of important nonpseudomonal pathogens. This finding was not observed after CAP-P administration independent of pancreatic enzyme replacement. The results of this study support the continued clinical use of either CAP-base or CAP-S, but the cautious use of CAP-P formulations in CF patients with concurrent pancreatic insufficiency.

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Correspondence to Jeffrey L Blumer.

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Dickinson, C., Reed, M., Stern, R. et al. The Effect of Exocrine Pancreatic Function on Chloramphenicol Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis. Pediatr Res 23, 388–392 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1203/00006450-198804000-00009

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