Invited Review | Published:

Biopolymers, Bio-related Polymer Materials

Highly lubricated polymer interfaces for advanced artificial hip joints through biomimetic design

Polymer Journal volume 47, pages 585597 (2015) | Download Citation

Abstract

For long-lasting artificial hip joint implants, it is necessary to reduce the wear of the acetabular liner composed of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and to eliminate periprosthetic osteolysis. An articular cartilage-mimicking technology has been developed for nanoscale surface modification by grafting poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (MPC) onto a highly cross-linked UHMWPE (X-UHMWPE) using photoinduced polymerization. The thickness of the poly(MPC) graft layer is 100–200 nm. This treatment increases the surface hydrophilicity. Other hydrophilic polymers grafted onto the X-UHMWPE are not suitable for long-term functioning under biological conditions. Studies of the tribological and biological effects with poly(MPC) grafted onto the X-UHMWPE substrate revealed that this grafting decreases the production of wear particles and bone resorption responses. The poly(MPC)-grafted X-UHMWPE has been introduced onto an artificial hip joint as a liner for lubrication. This artificial hip joint has been used clinically since 2011 and has been implanted in more than 20 000 patients. This technology has also been applied to the surface modification of PMPC on poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), using self-initiated photoinduced grafting, for the development of a new type of artificial joint. This articular cartilage-mimicking technology, which is applied to obtain highly lubricating surfaces, is therefore suitable for preparing artificial hip joint substrates.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    , , & (eds) Biomaterials Science 3rd edn (Academic Press, Amsterdam, Netherland, 2013).

  2. 2.

    & Biomaterials Science and Biocompatibility, Springer-Verlag,, New York, NY, (1999).

  3. 3.

    & Biomimetic, Bioresponsive and Bioactive Materials, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, (2012).

  4. 4.

    , , , & (eds) Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Materials, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1993).

  5. 5.

    , , , , & Prevalence of primary and revision total hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States from 1990 through 2002. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 87, 1487–1497 (2005).

  6. 6.

    , , , & Projections of primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States from 2005 to 2030. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 89, 780–785 (2007).

  7. 7.

    , , , , & International variation in hip replacement rates. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 62, 222–226 (2003).

  8. 8.

    , & A literature review of the association between wear rate and osteolysis in total hip arthroplasty. J. Arthroplasty 17, 649–661 (2002).

  9. 9.

    , , & Osteolysis: a disease of access to fixation interfaces. Clin. Orthop. 405, 129–137 (2002).

  10. 10.

    Changes in surgical loads and economic burden of hip and knee replacements in the US: 1997–2004. Arthritis Rheum. 59, 481–488 (2008).

  11. 11.

    , , , , , , , , , , & Future clinical and economic impact of revision total hip and knee arthroplasty. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am 89, 144–151 (2007).

  12. 12.

    , , , & Osteolysis: basic science. Clin. Orthop. 393, 71–77 (2001).

  13. 13.

    , , , , & Bone resorption activity of particulate-stimulated macrophages. J. Bone Miner. Res. 8, 1071–1079 (1993).

  14. 14.

    & Highly cross-linked polyethylene bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty. J. Surg. Orthop. Adv 17, 27–33 (2008).

  15. 15.

    , , , , , & Comparison of cross-linked polyethylene materials for orthopaedic applications. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res 414, 289–304 (2003).

  16. 16.

    , , , & A novel method of cross-linking ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene to improve wear, reduce oxidation, and retain mechanical properties. Recipient of the 1999 HAP Paul Award. J. Arthroplasty 16, 149–160 (2001).

  17. 17.

    , , & Clinical performance of highly cross-linked polyethylenes in total hip arthroplasty. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am 89, 2779–2786 (2007).

  18. 18.

    , , & Alternative bearing surfaces: alumina ceramic bearings for total hip arthroplasty. Instr. Course Lect 54, 171–176 (2005).

  19. 19.

    , , , , & Wear of highly cross-linked polyethylene acetabular cup in Japan. J. Arthroplasty 21, 944–949 (2006).

  20. 20.

    , & Low-friction arthroplasty of the hip using alumina ceramic and cross-linked polyethylene. A 17-year follow-up report. J. Bone Joint Surg. 87, 1220–1221 (2005).

  21. 21.

    , & The morphology and composition of the superficial zone of mammalian articular cartilage. J. Orthopaedic Rheumatol 6, 21–28 (1993).

  22. 22.

    , & Cartilage and diarthrodial joints as paradigms for hierarchical materials and structures. Biomaterials 13, 67–97 (1992).

  23. 23.

    & Structural changes during development in bovine fetal epiphyseal cartilage. Coll. Relat. Res 3, 489–504 (1983).

  24. 24.

    , , & Increased friction of animal joints by experimental degeneration and recovery by addition of hyaluronic acid. Clin. Biomech. 12, 246–252 (1997).

  25. 25.

    , & Role of water in the lubrication of hydrogel. Wear 261, 500–504 (2006).

  26. 26.

    , , & "Boosted lubrication" of human joints by fluid enrichment and entrapment. Biomed. Eng 4, 517–522 (1969).

  27. 27.

    , , & Time-dependent wear process between lubricated soft materials. Wear 1229, 656–659 (1999).

  28. 28.

    & Lubrication and cartilage. J. Anat. 121, 107–118 (1976).

  29. 29.

    , , in Tribological Research and Design for Engineering Systems (eds Dowson, D., Priest, M., Dalmaz, G. & Lubrecht, A. A.) 425–428 (Elsevier, Cambridge, UK, 2003).

  30. 30.

    Polymer brushes. Science 251, 905–914 (1991).

  31. 31.

    & An intelligent polymer brush. Trends Polym. Sci. 4, 59–64 (1996).

  32. 32.

    , & Polymer brushes via surface-initiated polymerizations. Chem. Soc. Rev. 33, 14–22 (2004).

  33. 33.

    & Tribological properties of hydrophilic polymer brushes under wet conditions. Chem. Rec. 10, 208–216 (2010).

  34. 34.

    , & Polyelectrolyte brushes: a novel stable lubrication system in aqueous conditions. Faraday Discuss. 156, 403–412 (2012).

  35. 35.

    , & Neutron reflectivity study of the swollen structure of polyzwitterion and polyeletrolyte brushes in aqueous solution. J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 25, 1673–1686 (2014).

  36. 36.

    , , , & Interferometry study of aqueous lubrication on the surface of polyelectrolyte brush. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 20365–20371 (2014).

  37. 37.

    , , , , & Normal and frictional forces between surfaces bearing polyelectrolyte brushes. Langmuir 24, 8678–8687 (2008).

  38. 38.

    , , , & Robust, biomimetic polymer brush layers grown directly from a planar mica surface. Chemphyschem 8, 1303–1306 (2007).

  39. 39.

    , , , & Lubrication at physiological pressures by polyzwitterionic brushes. Science 323, 1698–1701 (2009).

  40. 40.

    , , , & Photoinduced graft polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine on polyethylene membrane surface for obtaining blood cell adhesion resistance. Colloid. Surf. B Biointerfaces 18, 325–335 (2000).

  41. 41.

    , , , , & Nanoscale evaluation of lubricity on well-defined polymer brush surfaces using QCM-D and AFM. Colloid. Surf. B: Biointerfaces 74, 350–357 (2009).

  42. 42.

    , & Preparation of phospholipid polymers and their properties as polymer hydrogel membranes. Polym. J. 22, 355–360 (1990).

  43. 43.

    , , , & Preparation of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine copolymers with alkyl methacrylates and their blood compatibility. Polym. J. 24, 1259–1269 (1992).

  44. 44.

    & in Phosphorus-based Polymers: From Synthesis to Applications (eds Monge, S. & David, G.) 68–96 (RSC Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2014).

  45. 45.

    , , , , , , & Effects of mobility/immobility of surface modification by 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer on the durability of polyethylene for artificial joints. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 90, 362–371 (2009).

  46. 46.

    , , , , , , & Biomimetic hydration lubrication with various polyelectrolyte layers on cross-linked polyethylene orthopedic bearing materials. Biomaterials 33, 4451–4459 (2012).

  47. 47.

    , , , , , , & Effect of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine concentration on photo-induced graft polymerization of polyethylene in reducing the wear of orthopaedic bearing surface. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 86, 439–447 (2008).

  48. 48.

    , , , , , , , & Effects of photo-induced graft polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine on physical properties of cross-linked polyethylene in artificial hip joints. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med 18, 1809–1815 (2007).

  49. 49.

    , , , & Cartilage-mimicking, high-density brush structure improves wear resistance of crosslinked polyethylene: a pilot study. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res 469, 2327–2336 (2011).

  50. 50.

    in Tribology: A Systems Approach to the Science and Technology of Friction, Lubrication and Wear (ed Czichos, H) 1–13 (Elsevier, New York, NY, 1978).

  51. 51.

    , , , , , , , & Surface grafting of artificial joints with a biocompatible polymer for preventing periprosthetic osteolysis. Nat. Mater. 3, 829–837 (2004).

  52. 52.

    , , , & 2006 Frank Stinchfield Award: Grafting of biocompatible polymer for longevity of artificial hip joints. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res 453, 58–63 (2006).

  53. 53.

    , , , , , , & Wear resistance of artificial hip joints with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) grafted polyethylene: comparisons with the effect of polyethylene cross-linking and ceramic femoral heads. Biomaterials 30, 2995–3001 (2009).

  54. 54.

    , , & Adsorption of fibrinogen and lysozyme on silicon grafted with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Langmuir 21, 5980–5987 (2005).

  55. 55.

    , , , , & Why do phospholipid polymers reduce protein adsorption? J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 39, 323–330 (1998).

  56. 56.

    , , , & Protein adsorption from human plasma is reduced on phospholipid polymers. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 25, 1397–1407 (1991).

  57. 57.

    Phosphorylcholine-based polymers and their use in the prevention of biofouling. Colloid. Surf. B: Biointerfaces 18, 261–275 (2000).

  58. 58.

    Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 1, 131–138 (2000).

  59. 59.

    & Cell membrane-inspired phospholipid polymers for developing medical devices with excellent biointerfaces. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 13, 046101(10p) (2012).

  60. 60.

    , & A critical update on 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer science. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 132, 41766(10p) (2015).

  61. 61.

    , , , , & Structure of water in the vicinity of phospholipid analog copolymers as studied by vibrational spectroscopy. Langmuir 19, 10260–10266 (2003).

  62. 62.

    , , , & Hydration of phosphorylcholine groups attached to highly swollen polymer hydrogels studied by thermal analysis. Polymer 24, 4652–4657 (2008).

  63. 63.

    , , , , , , & Preclinical biocompatibility assessment of the EVAHEART ventricular assist device: coating comparison and platelet activation. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 81, 85–92 (2007).

  64. 64.

    , , , , , , , , & Clinical evaluation of the Sorin synthesis oxygenator with integrated arterial filter. J. Extra. Corpor. Technol 37, 201–206 (2005).

  65. 65.

    , , , , , , , , , , , & Evaluation of Mimesys phosphorylcholine (PC)-coated oxygenators during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults. J. Extra. Corpor. Technol 35, 6–12 (2003).

  66. 66.

    & Overview of pharmacology and clinical trials program with the zotarolimus-eluting endeavor stent. J. Interv. Cardiol. 19, 405–413 (2006).

  67. 67.

    , , , , , , , , , , , & , ENDEAVOR II Trial Investigators Detailed intravascular ultrasound analysis of Zotarolimus-eluting phosphorylcholine-coated cobalt-chromium alloy stent in de novo coronary lesions (results from the ENDEAVOR II trial). Am. J. Cardiol. 100, 818–823 (2007).

  68. 68.

    , , , , , , , , , , , , , & , ENDEAVOR III Trial Investigators Comparison of zotarolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with native coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 48, 2440–2447 (2006).

  69. 69.

    , , , , , , , & Clinical and angiographic results of percutaneous coronary revascularization using a trilayer stainless steel-tantalum-stainless steel phosphorylcholine-coated stent: the TriMaxx trial. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 70, 914–919 (2007).

  70. 70.

    , , , , , , , , , , , & Percutaneous coronary revascularization using a trilayer metal phosphorylcholine-coated zotarolimus-eluting stent. Am. J. Cardiol. 99, 1403–1408 (2007).

  71. 71.

    , , , , , , , & The favorable clinical and angiographic outcomes of a high-dose dexamethasone-eluting stent: randomized controlled prospective study. Am. Heart J. 152, 887.e1–e7 (2006).

  72. 72.

    , , , , , , & First human experience with angiopeptin-eluting stent: a quantitative coronary angiography and three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound study. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 66, 541–546 (2006).

  73. 73.

    , , , , , , , , , , , , & 17-Beta-estradiol eluting stent versus phosphorylcholine-coated stent for the treatment of native coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 96, 664–667 (2005).

  74. 74.

    , , , , , , & , LASMAL investigators Latin American randomized trial of balloon angioplasty vs coronary stenting for small vessels (LASMAL): immediate and long-term results. Am. J. Med. 118, 743–751 (2005).

  75. 75.

    , , , , , , , , & Investigators. The SV stent study: a prospective, multicentre, angiographic evaluation of the BiodivYsio phosphorylcholine coated small vessel stent in small coronary vessels. Int. J. Cardiol. 102, 95–102 (2005).

  76. 76.

    , , , , , & Initial and follow-up results of the BiodivYsio phosphorylcholine coated stent for treatment of coronary artery disease. Circ. J. 69, 295–300 (2005).

  77. 77.

    , , , , , , , , & , ISAR-SMART-2 Investigators A randomized trial comparing phosphorylcholine-coated stenting with balloon angioplasty as well as abciximab with placebo for restenosis reduction in small coronary arteries. J. Intern. Med. 256, 388–397 (2004).

  78. 78.

    , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , & Multicenter evaluation of the phosphorylcholine-coated BiodivYsio stent in short de novo coronary lesions: The SOPHOS study. Int. J. Cardiovasc. Intervent 3, 215–225 (2000).

  79. 79.

    & Early mobilization after protamine reversal of heparin following implantation of phosphorylcholine-coated stents in totally occluded coronary arteries. Am. J. Cardiol. 85, 698–702 (2000).

  80. 80.

    , , , , , , , , & Stenting very small coronary narrowings (<2 mm) using the biocompatible phosphorylcholine-coated coronary stent. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 55, 303–308 (2002).

  81. 81.

    , , , , & Lubrication by charged polymers. Nature 425, 163–165 (2003).

  82. 82.

    , , , & Photografting of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine from polydimethylsiloxane: tunable protein repellency and lubrication property. Colloid. Surf. B Biointerfaces 63, 64–72 (2008).

  83. 83.

    , , , , & Adsorption of albumin on prosthetic materials: implication for tribological behavior. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 78, 581–589 (2006).

  84. 84.

    , , , , , & Friction, lubrication, and polymer transfer between UHMWPE and CoCrMo hip-implant materials: a fluorescence microscopy study. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 89, 1011–1018 (2009).

  85. 85.

    , , , & Conformational and adsorptive characteristics of albumin affect interfacial protein boundary lubrication: from experimental to molecular dynamics simulation approaches. Colloid. Surf. B Biointerfaces 68, 171–177 (2009).

  86. 86.

    , , , , & Boundary lubrication under water. Nature 444, 191–194 (2006).

  87. 87.

    , , , , , , , & Friction behavior of high-density poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) brush in aqueous media. Soft Matter 3, 740–746 (2007).

  88. 88.

    , , , , , , , , & Long-term hip simulator testing of the artificial hip joint bearing surface grafted with biocompatible phospholipid polymer. J. Orthop. Res. 32, 369–376 (2014).

  89. 89.

    & Fluidity of bound hydration layers. Science 297, 1540–1543 (2002).

  90. 90.

    , , , & Development of an extremely wear-resistant ultra high molecular weight polyethylene for total hip replacements. J. Orthop. Res. 17, 157–167 (1999).

  91. 91.

    , , , , , & Unified wear model for highly crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPE). Biomaterials 20, 1463–1470 (1999).

  92. 92.

    The problem is osteolysis. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res 311, 46–53 (1995).

  93. 93.

    , , , , & The epidemiology of revision total hip arthroplasty in the United States. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am 91, 128–133 (2009).

  94. 94.

    , , , , , & Isolation and characterization of UHMWPE wear particles down to ten nanometers in size from in vitro hip and knee joint simulators. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 78, 473–480 (2006).

  95. 95.

    , , , , , , , , , , , , , & Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liner in primary total hip replacement: one-year results of a prospective cohort study. J. Artif. Organs 16, 170–175 (2013).

  96. 96.

    , , , , , , , , , , & Clinical and radiographic outcomes of total hip replacement with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liners: three-year results of a prospective consecutive series. Mod. Rheumatol 25, 286–291 (2015).

  97. 97.

    , , , , , , & Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) grafting and vitamin E blending for high wear resistance and oxidative stability of orthopedic bearings. Biomaterials 35, 6677–6686 (2014).

  98. 98.

    , , , & Multidirectional wear and impact-to-wear tests of phospholipid-polymer-grafted and vitamin E-blended crosslinked polyethylene: A pilot study. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res 473, 942–951 (2015).

  99. 99.

    & Self-initiated surface graft polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine on poly(ether-ether-ketone) by photoirradiation. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 537–542 (2009).

  100. 100.

    , , , , & Self-initiated surface grafting with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) on poly(ether-ether-ketone). Biomaterials 31, 1017–1024 (2010).

  101. 101.

    , , , , & Poly(ether-ether-ketone) orthopedic bearing surface modified by self-initiated surface grafting of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine). Biomaterials 34, 7829–7839 (2013).

  102. 102.

    , , , & Reduced platelets and bacteria adhesion on poly(ether ether ketone) by photoinduced and self-initiated graft polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 102, 1342–1349 (2014).

  103. 103.

    , , , , , & Smart PEEK modified by self-initiated surface graft polymerization for orthopeadic bearings. Reconst. Rev 4, 36–45 (2014).

Download references

Acknowledgements

This review summarizes the research that won the Award of the Society of Polymer Science, Japan (2013). I express sincere appreciation to Dr Toru Moro, Dr Yoshio Takatori, Dr Sakae Tanaka, Dr Hiroshi Kawaguchi and Dr Kozo Nakamura of the University of Tokyo, and Dr Masayuki Kyomoto of KYOCERA Medical Corporation. Additionally, I thank all of the staff: Dr Junji Watanabe, Dr Tomohiro Konno, Dr Ryosuke Matsuno, Dr Yuuki Inoue, Dr Kyoko Fukazawa and students belonging to the laboratory for providing a fine support to this research. This research was carried out with excellent cooperation with Medical School of the University of Tokyo and KYOCERA Medical Corporation and supported financially by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

    • Kazuhiko Ishihara

Authors

  1. Search for Kazuhiko Ishihara in:

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kazuhiko Ishihara.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Revised

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/pj.2015.45

Further reading