Table 1: Works used to determine the mechanism underlying the bioinertness of non-fouling SAMs

From: The roles of water molecules at the biointerface of medical polymers

TechniquesTarget propertiesReferences
Sum frequency generationVibration modes (local conformation) of molecules (thiol and water molecules)110, 111, 112
Fourier transform infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy 79, 113, 114, 115
Streaming potential measurements and electrokinetic measurementInterfacial charges and surface potentials116
Neutron reflectivityDensity distributions of water near surface as a function of distance from the surface117
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopyDielectric constants between two electrodes (penetration of water into SAMs)118
Atomic force microscopyInteractions between two substrates as a function of the separation between them93, 109, 119, 120, 121
Monte Carlo simulationsStatistics of structural properties and the dynamics (only with molecular dynamics (MD)) of the interfacial molecules94, 122, 123
MD 88, 96, 97, 98, 100, 101, 102, 124, 125
Ab initio calculationEnergy calculation of single (or few) molecule with different conformations. Interactions between thiol and water molecules (limited to few molecules)126, 127, 128, 129, 130
  1. Abbreviation: SAM, self-assembled monolayer.