An Apparatus for High Speed Measurements of Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Profiles with a Linear Position Sensitive Detector

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Abstract

An apparatus for high speed measurements of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is described. This apparatus utilizes a 12 kW rotating anode X-ray generator, a linear position sensitive proportional counter (multicathode delay line PSPC), and a two-parameter multichannel pulse height analyzer (MCA) with 12 kwords (16 bits/word) memory area available for SAXS intensity data as a function of position (scattering angles) and time slice. The two-parameter MCA is constructed within a microcomputer system, by utilizing its R/W memory for data storage, and the memory incrementing and real-time CRT display is implemented by using two direct memory access (DMA) controllers. The cycle time of the access is about 10 μs. The measuring time for SAXS profiles with this apparatus can be shortened approximately by three orders of magnitude in comparison with the measuring time with SAXS apparatuses utilizing a conventional step-scanning goniometer and a conventional X-ray tube, thus permitting time-resolved analyses of SAXS profiles. Some applications of the apparatus to dynamic SAXS measurements are presented for polymeric systems, the preliminary results of which seem to indicate the possibility of obtaining a new class of data on dynamics in structural transformation, deformation, formation and annihilation in the scale of a few tens to several hundred Angstroms.

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Keywords

  • Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering
  • Position Sensitive Proportional Counter
  • Rotating Anode X-Ray Generator
  • Two-Parameter Multichannel Pulse Height Analyzer
  • Dynamic SAXS
  • Block Polymer
  • Phase Separation
  • Ionic Cluster
  • Dynamics of Deformation
  • Oriented Crystallization

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