Hyperfibrinogen is thought to be associated with a higher risk of invasion and metastasis, as well as a worse outcome for multiple types of cancer. However, the prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen has not been investigated in prostate cancer with hormonal therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate its roles in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
A total of 290 patients who underwent ADT as first-line therapy for prostate cancer were retrospectively analyzed. The fibrinogen level was measured at the time of diagnosis. Patients were categorized using a cutoff point of 3.225 g l−1 according to a calculation by the receiver operating curve analysis. Correlations between the fibrinogen and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Meanwhile, univariable and multivariable cox regression analyses were performed to determine the associations of fibrinogen with progression-free survival (PFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). Prognostic accuracy was evaluated with the Harrell concordance index.
Compared with patients with a lower fibrinogen level (<3.225 g l−1), patients with a higher fibrinogen level were more likely to have higher PSA, Gleason score, risk stratification and incidence of metastasis (P<0.05). Multivariable analyses identified hyperfibrinogen as an independent prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio (HR)=2.000, P<0.001), CSS (HR=2.209, P=0.006) and OS (HR=1.965, P=0.009). The final models built by the addition of fibrinogen improved predictive accuracy (c-index: 0.750, 0.799 and 0.767) for PFS, CSS and OS compared with the clinicopathological base models (c-index: 0.730, 0.778 and 0.746), which included Gleason score and metastasis.
The pretreatment plasma fibrinogen level was associated with tumor progression and might have a significant role in the prognosis of the prostate cancer patients treated with ADT. Thus, we recommend adding fibrinogen to traditional prognostic model, which may improve its predictive accuracy.
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This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91129725,81572536), Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (14140901700), Shanghai Municipal Education Commission(15ZZ058), and Key Disciplines Group Construction Project of Pudong Health Bureau of Shanghai (PWZxq2014-05).
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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